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Lecture 16

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Political Science
POLS 3260
Saeed Rahnema

POLS 3260- Lecture 16 November 7 , 2013 Jordan  75% are Palestinians, always been apart of negotiation and solution  Jordanian solution- Palestinians should move to Jordan, and part of the West Bank should be linked to Jordan  Historically, Jordan as a country did not exist  The area is the site of many older civilizations such as the Romans, lots of palaces exist: when Ottomans took it over Jordan was apart of the province (vilayat) of Syria  Area became to be known as Trans-Jordan which was the east bank  After the first world war when ottomans were defeated it came under the control of the British, whom created a Mandate including Palestine and including the country of trans-Jordan and they imported a King, Hussein’s son, by the name of Abdulla  At first it was under the control of king Faiza, and he was sent to rule Iraq because  1921- Abdulla was chosen as king and he was very pro-British and he was close to the Zionists as well  1946- treaty with the British was signed that made Trans-Jordan a constitutional monarchy (somewhat independence)  After the Arab-Israeli was in 1949 Jordan took over the west side/ West Bank, all land of Palestine was taken over by Israelis and 2 Arab countries  In 1949 they changed the name to Jordan  In 1940 the formally annexed the West bank  1951- King Abdulla was assassinated because he made a deal with Israelis to allow them to take over Eilat  Hussein became king came into power in 1953-1999 when he died, important figure in terms of reconciliation between both sides, always close to British and  1967 Israeli’s gave them option to stay out of war but he knew a revolt by Jordanians would occur so they fought, and Israel won  His son from previous wife became King Abdulla the second and is there until the present  Jordan after signing an agreement with Israel tried to take advantage of free trade with America, so it got closer and closer to Israel  Proposal came by a Jordanian for (QIZ) Qualified Industrial Zone began in 1996 but came into affect in 1997 o Whatever product that is going to be traded with Americans through GIZ should have 35% content, 65% can come from anywhere but 35 should come from US or Israel, and in some cases Jordan and Egypt o Of the 35%, 20% definitely must come from either Israel or Jordan, minimum 8% from Jordan in Israel, and for Egypt 11.5% o 5 zones are established in Jordan in north south and center, and hires about 30, 000 people o At the same time since they couldn’t hire Jordanians they has to import cheap labor who mostly came from Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, China, etc. o Egypt has 4 zones but ironically most of these zones are owned by rich Jordanians Syria  Historically one of the oldest civilization on earth, i.e. Phoenicians discussed in first term, but they almost became extinct in terms of cultures and religions  Then the area came eventually under the control of the Ottomans who divided this into different provinces  And then came the collapse of this empire  1918 Arab troops under leadership of Lawrence of Arabia and Amir Faiza and the McMahon-Hussein agreement, captured Damascus and this was end of ottoman rule  1920 national congress was put together and Faiza became king of Syria (at that time meant including todays Israel minus Jerusalem and a part of Jordan)  The area was given to the French in another agreement and the French expelled king Faiza  1922 Syria became divided into different sections under the French mandate  Alexandretta part of Turkey now (called Hatai), extremely significant, French gave it to Turkey, site of the rise of Syrian nationalism  1928 mandate was put together to write constitution of Syria but French declined  1936 France recognized in principle Syrian independence  1941- the French Free Officers with help of British invaded and took the area backmaronites- came  1946 after the war French left Syria  1947 the Baath party was established- nationalist Arab party originating in Syria on the one hand due to loss of Alexandretta and so forth  1949 Military coup comes into power but cannot be maintained  1958 Syria joins the UAR United Arab Republic (when Nasser takes over Syria and virtually plunders Syria- worst colonialist)  1961 another coup that Syrian officers come into power  1910-1920  French mandate 1920-1946  Syrian republic 1946-58  United Arab Republic 58-61  Syrian-Arab republic 1961- to present De-militarized zone (DMZ)  When seize fire occurred 3 areas were not under control of Arabs nor Israelis and they are extremely important because they are close to significant sources of water  UN created a new agency to take care of this but Israeli’s did not recognize it and gradually moved in and took it over so all of the 3 zones eventually became part of Israel  1967 Golan Heights – extremely significant historically Greek occupied it then the Persians o In terms of Hydraulic source reaches over 3000 L per second o Israelis took it over in 1967, they lost part of it during the war o Totally annexed it in 1981 o Series of UN security council which denied this and refused to recognize the annex o Population: mix of Arabs and Druze o 170 000 were expelled as refugees and Israeli’s started building settlements o Israeli’s used their agricultural technology created lots of new plantations and now it’s a major wine exporter  Syria is a multi-ethnic country; mostly Muslim and mostly Sunnis, then Christians, then Druze, Kurds, and other branches of Islam *Presentations* Lebanon  Maronites came to the region seeking protection, and so did the Druze, they shared the area  1886 there was conflicts between the two and the French under napoleon took advantage of this  he introduced a new system called confessionalism based on the millet system, and imposed it on Lebanon and  6 principle religions: maronites, druze, sunni, shi, Greek orthodox and greek catholic  mount Lebanon or lesser Lebanon was divided into 7 zones, 4 was given to maronites, 1 druze, 1 greek, 1 catholic and orthodox  London with druze, st. Petersburg with Greek orthodox  1920 when French mandate comes, borders were adjusted and Lebanon was created without independence  With the border Christians were not dominant majority  1926 they put together a constitution which gave each community equal representation and gave autonomy to each religion  Implicit division made in terms of conflict that president was maronites, prime minister Sunni, and the speaker of the house a shi  Unilateral 128 seats which is proportional representation  People elect nat
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