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Political Science
POLS 3560
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The Global South: Politics, Policy & Development POLS 3560 – Fall/Winter 2011/2012 – Ananya Mukherjee-Reed Lecture 2 – Understanding the Global South: The ‘Refugees’ – Sept 27 Forced Displacement: A Global Issue - At the end of 2010, 43.7 million people worldwide were forcibly displaced by conflict and persecution. - UNHCR provides protection or assistance to 25.2 million people. - Statelessness is estimated to have affected up to 12 million people by the end of 2010. - 2 million people displaced by natural disasters and under the care of the UNHCR. Where are most of the world’s refugees? - Developing countries host four-fifth of the world’s refugees. - The 49 least developed countries provided asylum to almost 2 million refugees. - Pakistan, Iran, and Syria were the top 3 refugee hosting countries in 2010. - Most refugees flee to neighbouring countries. Forced Migration - The movement of refugees and internally displaced people by conflicts, natural or environmental disasters, chemical or nuclear disasters, famine or development projects. - Conflict induced displacement: is caused by armed conflict, including civil war; generalized violence; and persecution based on nationality, race, religion, political opinion or social group. - Disaster induced displacement: people displaced as a result of natural disasters (e.g. earthquakes), environmental change (e.g. global warming) and human- made disasters (e.g. industrial accidents). - Development-induced displacement: people who are compelled to move as a result of certain development projects (E.g. dams, roads, mining initiatives, etc.). Who is a Refugee? - Refugees are individuals and groups affected by forced migration, along with asylum seeker and internally displaced individuals. - Legal definition – A person who is outside his or her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his or her race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution. Other Types of Forced Migrants - Asylum seekers are people who have crossed an international border in search of protection under the 1951 refugee convention but whose claim for refugee status has not yet been determined. - Stateless people are individuals who are not considered a national by any state (to be without nationality or citizenship). The Origins of the Modern Refugee Regime - The First World War, the disintegration of the Ottoman and Austrian-Hungarian Empires, the Balkan wars, counterrevolutionary wars in Russia, etc. led to massive human displacements. - Nationalism and its drive to create ethnically and linguistically homogeneous populations led to mass expulsions of minority groups. - In 1921 the League of Nations high commissioner for refugees (LNHCR) was created. - UNHCR was created after WWII in Europe as a response to the many displaced and
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