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Political Science
POLS 3560
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The Global South: Politics, Policy & Development POLS 3560 – Fall/Winter 2011/2012 – Ananya Mukherjee-Reed Lecture 6 – Development: Mainstream and Critical Perspectives – Oct 25 Core Mainstream Idea: Landes - “The Industrial Revolution made some countries richer and others poorer; or more accurately, some countries made an industrial revolution and became rich; and others did not and stayed poor.” - “The consequence of these advances was a growing gap between modern industrial countries and laggards, between rich and poor. In Europe in 1750, the difference between Western Europe (excluding Britain) and eastern in income per head was perhaps 15%; in 1800, little more than 20%. By 1860 it was up to 64%; by the 1900s almost 80%.” - “The same polarization, only much sharper, took place between Europe and those countries that later came to be defined as a Third World – in part because modern factory industries swallowed their old-fashioned rivals, at home and abroad.” Landes: ‘The Losers’ - “All the ills that have hurt Latin America and the Middle East are exponentially compounded in sub-Saharan Africa: bad government, unexpected sovereignty, backward technology, inadequate education, and bad climate, incompetent if not dishonest advice, poverty, hunger, disease, and overpopulation – a plague of plagues.” The ‘Winners’: The Unbound Prometheus - “In the eighteenth century, a series of inventions transformed the manufacture of cotton in England and gave rise to a new mode or production – the factory system. During these years, other branches of industry affected comparable advances, and all these together, mutually reinforcing one another, made possible further gains on an ever-widening front.” The ‘Losers’ - Of all the so-called developing regions, Africa has done worst: gross domestic product per head increasing, maybe, by less than 1% a year; statistical tables sprinkled with minus signs; many countries with lower income today than before independence. Industrial Revolution: Three Principles - The substitution of machines – rapid, regular, precise, tireless – for human skill and effort; - The substitution of inanimate for inanimate sources of power; - The use of new and far more abundant raw materials, in particular, the substitution of mineral for vegetable or animal substances. Why Britain? - Of natural or financial resources that the United Kingdom received from its many overseas colonies. - Profits from the British slave trade between Africa and the Caribbean. - The greater liberalisa
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