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Political Science
POLS 3560

The Global South: Politics, Policy & Development POLS 3560 – Fall/Winter 2011/2012 – Ananya Mukherjee-Reed Lecture 7 – Modernization, Human Development – Nov 1 Recaps - Recap #1 – Criteria for assessing a develop theory/approach. There were: o Justice; difference; agency. o Note: justice as redistribution versus. o Justice as removing oppression (metaphor of the cage). - Recap #2 – Two approaches to development – modernization; human development as capability. Modernization: Rostow - Five stages of growth. - The traditional society. - The preconditions for take-off. - The take-off. - The drive to maturity, and - The age of high mass-consumption. Standard Critiques - Linear. - Sees growth as a ‘naturalized’ process. - Does not identify forces of change. - No contradictions. - Assumes the ‘superiority’ of the Western model. Our Criteria - Justice (distribution vs. oppression). - Difference (race, gender, ethnicity, etc.) - Agency (who brings about change? From above or below? Who has a voice in determining how development happens?) - Note: These three are connected. You cannot consider one without the other. Human Development - The three approaches at a glance: o HD as enhancement of capability. o HD as protection of the most vulnerable. o HD as changes in the matrix of social power. Comparing the Approaches: Justice - The capability approach o Main distributive, as associated with capitalism, with minimal liberal regulations, so as to give individuals better access and rights. - The human face approach o Focuses on economic inequality, especially inequality amongst nations. Comparing the Approaches: Difference - The capability approach o Speaks at length of gender, sporadically of ethnicity and religion; but always within the framework of distributive justice, particularly the distribution of access and opportunity for individuals. - The human face approach o Largely silent; its focus is on groups such as women and children who are most vulnerable. Comparing the Approaches: Agency - The capability approach o The goal is to develop individual agency; in the interim, the state and international institutions are to be the agents which create conditions for the development of individual agency. - The human face approach o The goal is to develop the capacity of international institutions are agents; it also emphasizes the role of the state, and policy-makers as agents. Social Power Approach - Bas
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