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Political Science
POLS 3560
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The Global South: Politics, Policy & Development POLS 3560 – Fall/Winter 2011/2012 – Ananya Mukherjee-Reed Lecture 18 – Political Economy of Terrorism and War – Mar 6 Kashmir: What is at issue? - Self-determination and independence. - Secularism versus religion as a basis for states. - Territory. - Dislocation and loss of lives. - Identity. Basics - Independence on August 14, 1947. - East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and West Pakistan. - 4 provinces: Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, NWFP. - 3 territories: Azad Kashmir, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Gilgit- Baltistan. - National language is Urdu – but most people speak Punjabi (60-70%). Pakistan - Tensions with India, Kashmir situation etc., also created insecurity. - This led in turn to a strengthening of the military. - Resource scarcity. - Assassination of first PM Liaqaut Ali Khan. - By 1951, the US saw this as an opportunity to extend Cold War politics. Sources of Power: Pakistan - Military. - Bureaucracy. - Landowning classes. - Prime minister and party in government. - President. - Religion and religious leaders. - External relations (in particular, with the US). Locus of Power - President o Undemocratic constitutions (especially since Zia) with unprecedented concentration of powers in the President. - Military o Weakness of the political system; Perceived threat of external aggression. - Bureaucracy o History and state formation; elitism of the Muslim league; concentration of power in the head; cultural bias against politicians. - Religion o Perhaps the most complex locus of power. - The US o The US’s own interests  Oil  Anti-communism Constitution - 3 constitutions since independence (1956, 1962, 1973) each reiterating the importance of Islam. - The last iteration (1973) of the constitution came after the cessation of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1971. Role of Religion in the State - The various degrees of state secularity / religiosity of different governments demonstrates the difficulties, at the state level, to articulate the role of Islam in the state. - Zia-ul-Haq’s government (1973-1988) came closest to implementing Shariah law through its ‘Islamization programs’, but no federal government has fully implemented Shariah Law. - Shariah Law has existed, however, in certain territories. Women in Pakistan - Zia-ul-Haq’s ‘Islamization’ policies had detrimental effects for women especially through a set of law called the Hudood Ordinances. - A vocal and vociferous women’s movement emerged during Zia’s rule. - Women’s movement in Pakistan struggling to articulate a balance between Islam and secularism. Political Economy of Defence - A
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