The Global South: Politics, Policy & Development
POLS 3560 – Fall/Winter 2011/2012 – Ananya Mukherjee-Reed
Lecture 18 – Political Economy of Terrorism and War – Mar 6
Kashmir: What is at issue?
- Self-determination and independence.
- Secularism versus religion as a basis for states.
- Dislocation and loss of lives.
- Independence on August 14, 1947.
- East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) and West Pakistan.
- 4 provinces: Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, NWFP.
- 3 territories: Azad Kashmir, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Gilgit-
- National language is Urdu – but most people speak Punjabi (60-70%).
- Tensions with India, Kashmir situation etc., also created insecurity.
- This led in turn to a strengthening of the military.
- Resource scarcity.
- Assassination of first PM Liaqaut Ali Khan.
- By 1951, the US saw this as an opportunity to extend Cold War politics.
Sources of Power: Pakistan
- Landowning classes.
- Prime minister and party in government.
- Religion and religious leaders.
- External relations (in particular, with the US).
Locus of Power
o Undemocratic constitutions (especially since Zia) with unprecedented
concentration of powers in the President.
o Weakness of the political system; Perceived threat of external aggression.
o History and state formation; elitism of the Muslim league; concentration of
power in the head; cultural bias against politicians.
- Religion o Perhaps the most complex locus of power.
- The US
o The US’s own interests
- 3 constitutions since independence (1956, 1962, 1973) each reiterating the
importance of Islam.
- The last iteration (1973) of the constitution came after the cessation of East
Pakistan (now Bangladesh) in 1971.
Role of Religion in the State
- The various degrees of state secularity / religiosity of different governments
demonstrates the difficulties, at the state level, to articulate the role of Islam in
- Zia-ul-Haq’s government (1973-1988) came closest to implementing Shariah law
through its ‘Islamization programs’, but no federal government has fully
implemented Shariah Law.
- Shariah Law has existed, however, in certain territories.
Women in Pakistan
- Zia-ul-Haq’s ‘Islamization’ policies had detrimental effects for women especially
through a set of law called the Hudood Ordinances.
- A vocal and vociferous women’s movement emerged during Zia’s rule.
- Women’s movement in Pakistan struggling to articulate a balance between Islam
Political Economy of Defence