POLS 1000 Lecture Notes - Economic Liberalism, Neoliberalism, Soviet Union

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
York University
Political Science
POLS 1000
Theoretical obstacle to the development of ideologies
For the first time in centuries it was seen that human knowledge and
human thought is incapable of grasping the general movement of
society despite incredible advances in scientific knowledge, we never
knew so much, we had enough technological tools to process the
information [our understanding of the society and social dynamics is
weak]; oddly enough our ability to analyze particular issues remain
strong while at the same time we have a difficult time articulating a
general outlook on the world; our capacity to synthesis is to take a lot of
information and analysis to put together and create a big picture has
It is seen that it is extremely difficult to articulate this big picture and
to understand how fundamentally things work and in large scales
Philosophers believe that it is possible to get the big picture
At least 2 of the 3 ideologies has actually been contradicted by their
practical application
Referring to the experience of Marxism in the Ussr; official document of
the soviet union
Have an example of a contradiction of an ideology
More. Imp. For us liberalism is our horizon politically
Liberal ideology = state is a “necessary evil” – why is it necessary? The
state is necessary to protect private property. – Why is it evil? The state
has power and the states power can harm the individual
In practice the history of liberalism will contradict; the idea that the
state is a necessary evil
In order to promote economic liberalism the state will have to use its
powers to taxation in order to re-distribute wealth; it will allow for an
extension of power and it will stimulate the economy
In addition, wealth re-distribution will take away one of the main
reasons why people engage in revolutionary activity; it will make the
poor less poor, it will fight poverty and by doing so it will remove the
communist temptation in the early 20th century
All of this is with liberal ideologies; despite its anti-state tradition
liberalism will thrive thanks to state intervention
And liberalism will survive through strong state intervention
‘neo-liberalism’ = is a variant or a sub-species of liberalism
People who believe we should return to the original thinking of the
Oddly enough some neo-liberals will argue that we should eliminate
state liberalism all together
And we know liberalism survives through the state and if we remove
the state then were almost getting rid of liberalism
Liberals are playing a dangerous game by arguing the removal of state
The reading of liberalism is dog-matic [def. Arrogant assertion of
unproved or improvable principles]
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Liberalism rests upon a dog-matic effect of liberalism; in other words
neo-liberals are ignorant and do not know the development of liberalism,
or their stupid and they just ignore the history of liberalism
Contemporary attempt to understand our changing world
Manent calls it an impartial world
By impartial reading he means that he wants to give all perspectives
including those he disagrees with in fair and equal change of
explanation of our situation
Manent will begin his book by starting off with poetry
Manents foundation of science and liberty
He will ask what is it that holds authority for us [by us he’s referring to
citizens to western liberty democracy]
Despite this fact what do we all consider as authorities and without
Barings [a map] in the world what is it that holds authority for us
Key term = what is authority
*Etymology of authority [Latin]:
Auctor [in Latin means founder and author]
Augere [in Latin means to increase]
Contained within the term authority is the idea of something that is
foundational and therefore important but there is also the idea that his
foundational and important thing must be increased/augmented and this
is the contribution of augere.
In other words something that holds authority for us is something that
has to be perused and expanded; it has to be increased and re-enforced
Ex. Parents have authority in our lives. Because in our lives they are
autors they are founders and authors and within this parental role their
role must be increased [augere] because of society and in society
parents and authority has to be increased and it must be in the rarest
cases that authorities of parents are put into question by society and if
the authority of parents are put into question it’s because parents have
relinquished their authoritarian within the child’s life and so the state
has a right to come and remove the authority
Authority defined= something that is foundational and needs to be
increased or augmented.
Our societies are organized for and by science and liberty
Both science and liberty will contain an “active principle” and Manent
will attempt to identify the active principle
Both contained within them a principle that governs their actions [an
active principle]
1. Science is the authority in the theoretical domain
Beyond the differences between the soft sciences and the
hard sciences all sciences will partake in an “unprecedented
project” in the history of humanity
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Document Summary

The state is necessary to protect private property. Barings [a map] in the world what is it that holds authority for us: key term = what is authority, *etymology of authority [latin]: Beyond the differences between the soft sciences and the hard sciences all sciences will partake in an unprecedented project in the history of humanity. [the world as an ought to be is a product of theological. Known as the scientific project, which reveals the world. In this case it is machiavelli that will give the earliest and the best articulation of this project. Point*by the effectual trough he says we must forget. At the heart of this unprecedented project is an attempt to. Political, economical, intellectual and cultural liberties. (the truth of modern liberty is contained in the idea that man is the sovereign author of the human world.

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