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Lecture 8

lecture 8.docx

Political Science
Course Code
POLS 1000
Aryn Martin

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November 14th, 2011
English Revolution
-democratic elements present in new model army argues that consent is the key to legitimacy
-must obtain beforehand the consent of those you will govern
-Levellers- during the putiny debates argue that every man to live under a government ought first by hius
own consent put himself under that government
-Grandees (conservatives) respond and use a re-occurring argument that if you give the right to vote to
everybody, this will leave to anarchy we have to trust only those who have a fixed permanent interest
in the kingdom
-another way of describing property (must only trust those who own property because they have a
fixed interest in the country)
-new found emphasis on consent can be found in the American Revolution,
-impulse contained in the expression “no taxation without representation”
-because the Americans lacked representation in England, they had not given their consent to being
governed by the English .
-founders of American republic emphasize the need of obtaining consent
-they will write that the governments that are instituted can only derive their just powers from the consent
of the governed
French Revolution
Began in 1789 some say ended in 1799, 1795, 1914
At the dawn of the French revolution, franc was ruled by an absolute monarch (Louis Capet the 16th)
Politically speaking French society was dominated by a very small group of aristocrats (about 2% of
the population)
The French aristocracy and catholic church were exempt from most obligations towards the state
(didn’t have to pay taxes)
This regime whereby aristocrats govern but have no obligations, is a regime known as special
privileges, they were given because of birth rights (born into aristocrat families) and for reasons of
Against this small of privilege citizens was the majority citizens of merchant class and peasants and
urban poor 98%
This 98% had to consume all the expenses of the 2%
Made up of 2 defining moments
a) The quest for a constitutional monarchy (you have a monarch power is limited by a
b) Establishment of the republic, the first French republic
Two events that will define the 1st phase
i) 1789-1792, the great political accomplishments are the declarations of the rights of men
and citizens
ii) The constitution of 1791
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