POLS 1000 Lecture Notes - The German Ideology, Class Conflict, Heredity

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21 Nov 2012
January 16th, 2012
Professor Martin Breaugh
Ideology - idea ; logos = science
o De Tracy
o 1795
o Napoleon will attack ideology and a negative connotation will be associated with it.
The German Ideology by Karl Marx and Fredric Engel
o interpretation of the movement of society given by a particular social class by presenting
them as being universal and even as necessary
Ideologies are the expression of both relationships of power and class struggle
An ideology will justify the position and the point of view of a particular social
class by presenting it as universal and necessary.
4: Ideologies from Marx and Engles don't only present a biased interpretations of society, they
offer an ideal representations
o Understood as the best possible society, taking into account human needs and human
o Each ideology will not put forth an ideal that is impossible to obtain but one that is important
for our needs
This need is usually blocked by from factor or another by society i.e. existing social
This ideal needs to be put into action
Ideologies are future oriented
i.e. After the French Rev. Gets rid of the heredity principle (social hierarchies) and
monarchs, Conservative thinkers will put forth a form of thinking that is based on
natural hierarchy. This will allow monarchs back into power.
Ideologies require political action, they call for political engagement and participation
o This must be realized for our good, or the betterment of humanity
i.e. Marxism and Marxist; through out the 20th Century worked to find their ideologies.
POTENTIAL EXAM QUESTION: Taking the six point definition of ideology, taking each of the six
points, tell me what comes from Marx and Angles and what doesn't.
o Ideology is a global system of thought. This global system of thought leads to specific
attitudes and behaviours in society.
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January 16th, 2012
Professor Martin Breaugh
Friedman ideology is a set of beliefs, opinions and values
EX. Conservatives will usually demonstrate a respect for hierarchy in society
Whereas socialists, will usually refuse relations of subordinations. (not
comfortable in hierarchy situations, believe in equality)
This global system of thought will express the interests and the aspirations of a
particular social class or social force
Will be made up of principles and of theoretical notions that offer a global
interpretation of history, society and of human existence
As a summary, ideology is a world view that takes the perspective of a particular point
of view, of a social force behind it, but presents this world view as universal and
o All ideologies imply a critique of the present situation, of the status quo.
This critique will be shaped by the particular social situation that the social force
behind the ideology finds itself in
The here and now invariably informs ideological thought
EX. Conservative thought is born after the French Revolution
Conservative thought tried to show how the new situation in France led to the
social bond (Social bond referring to the different ties that bind people together
in a particular community)
it helped people understand what their place was in the world, and there is very
little social mobility in monarchy so your place was defined and marked in
Allowed for people to understand what their role was in society
After FR, conservatives will critique the French Revolution in Fance, the critique
they give will be shaped by the face that they are no lnger in charge
Their critique is because they are displaced as a ruling class
They see chaos and say that they need hierarchy
3. Not only do ideologies offer a critique of the status quo but they offer a vision of the future
Offer an ideal model that must be protected, restored or realized
Because usually, Liberals seek to protect an ideal or a model such as the free
market or state intervention
Usually, conservations seek to restore a bygone or institution like monarchy
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