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Psychology Class Notes Oct 28- Nov 18.docx

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Psychology- Themes and Variations Class Notes Lorenz Sol Thurs.Oct.28.2010 Types of Conditioning (Learning) A.) Classical Conditioning B.) Operant or Instrumental Conditioning C.) Observational Learning A.) Classic Conditioning (Pavlov) 1.) Unconditioned Response (UR or UCR) - A response that is automatic or reflexive - It is involuntary, response that you don’t have control of Ex. You are hit in the eye = your eye bleeds  Involuntary. Someone scares you = you jump  Involuntary. 2.) Unconditioned Stimulus (US) - A stimulus that elicits (triggers) the unconditioned response (UR/UCR) 3.) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - Any stimulus that’s paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) and eventually elicits a response that is similar to the unconditioned response (UR/UCR) 4.) Conditioned Response (CR) - The response triggered by the conditioned stimulus (CS) and it is identical to the unconditioned response (UR/UCR) Example (Triggers)(+Stimuli presented roughly at the same time) Dog salivates on the sight of food, while a bell is ringing. Food= Salivation. UR= Salivation, US= Food, CS= Bell Bell + Food, BellSalivation. Bell used to be neutral, but after being associated with food, the dog would respond by salivating. Bell (CS) Salivation (CR). Family gatheringUncle approaches you and says hi while hitting/punching you You flinch. (US) Slap  Flinch (UR) Hello + Slap = (CS) Slap  Flinch (CR) Advertisers believe that they can use classical conditioning to get consumers to buy their product(s). Phobias Can be acquired through classical conditioning or observational learning. One traumatic conditioning pairing is enough to have fear/phobia. Psychological disorder (Irrational fear of something) (US) Gong  Fear (UR) Mouse + Gong (CS) Mouse  Fear (CR) (CS being the phobic stimulus) Higher-Order Stimulus *Possible Question for Test 2 - Is when a well-established CS starts acting as though it was an US and is able to being the CR under the control of a CS2. - CS1: (US) Food  Salivation (UR). Bell + Food = (CS) Bell  Salivation (CR) - CS2: Light + Bell= Light  Salivation CR ↸ Higher-order stimulus ↸ Second-order stimulus ↸ Third-order stimulus ↸ Fourth-order stimulus  X Stimulus Generalization - Is when a CR occurs in response to the other stimuli’s that are similar to the original CS used in training (acquisition) - The greater the similarity, the more likely generalization will occur (US) Food  Salivation (UR) 60000 H2 Bell + Food (CS) 60000 H2  Salivation (CR) Psychology- Themes and Variations Class Notes Lorenz Sol 80000 H2 =?  If it worked, stimuli generalization occurred 80000 H2 Bell  Salivation 40000 H2 Bell  Salivation 100,000 H2  No response, stimuli generalization doesn’t occur because it’s too different from the original stimuli Ex. You got bitten by a German Sheppard when you were little, you develop a phobia/ fear of dogs [all dogs or big dogs] Stimulus Discrimination - Is when a CR is elicited only in response to a CS that was paired with the US during training - Being able to tell the difference with the CS presented in training - Ex. Dog can tell the frequency used in training Extinction - Is when the CS is no longer paired with the US over a period of time, the CS will elicit a CR that gradually weakens and disappears (US) Food  Salivation (UR) Bell + Food (CS) Bell  Salivation (CR) - Getting rid of CR to CS - Ex. Ring the bell without presenting food. Gradually, salivation response will get weaker, extinguishing it sooner or later. Thurs.Nov.11 .2010 Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance of an extinguished CR when exposed the CS (after a rest period). (*Possible S.A for Test #2)Contiguity: When 2 stimuli occur close together in time, they become associated. Pavlov claimed two things about contiguity: [1] For conditioning to occur the US & CS must be contiguous. [2] If any US & CS are paired together, conditioning will occur. Garcia Exposed rats to (US) X-Rays  Nausea (UR) Solution + X-Ray (7 hrs in b/w) (CS) Water Solution  Nausea (CR) Prepared learning: inborn tendency to associate Garcia Effect (US) X-ray  Nausea (UR) (CS) Water/Light/Noise + X-Ray (both contiguous) Water  Nausea (CR) Light  X Noise  X Different Test: (US) Shock  Fear (UR) (CS) Water/Light/Noise + Shock Water  X Light  Fear (CR) Noise  Fear (CR) Operant Conditioning (Skinner) Learning through consequences. 3 Elements- [1] Stimulus [2] Voluntary Response Psychology- Themes and Variations Class Notes Lorenz Sol [3] Consequence (Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Negative Punishment, Positive Punishment) + Positive Reinforcer (Sr ) When something pleasant is introduced of added to the situation and this increases the probability of the response (R) to re-occurring. + Factors that Increase effectiveness of a (Sr )- [1] Magnitude of the (Sr )  Impact, size, strength [2] Immediacy of (Sr )+ + + [3] Scheduling of the (Sr )  Pattern, how the (Sr ) is delivered Reinforcement Schedules Intermittent,or Continuous Partial Reinforcement Reinforcement Sched. (CRF) Sched. Interval Ratio Schedules Schedules Fixed Ratio (FR) Variable ratio
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