Psychology- Themes and Variations Class Notes
Types of Conditioning (Learning)
A.) Classical Conditioning
B.) Operant or Instrumental Conditioning
C.) Observational Learning
A.) Classic Conditioning (Pavlov)
1.) Unconditioned Response (UR or UCR)
- A response that is automatic or reflexive
- It is involuntary, response that you don’t have control of
Ex. You are hit in the eye = your eye bleeds Involuntary. Someone scares you = you jump
2.) Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
- A stimulus that elicits (triggers) the unconditioned response (UR/UCR)
3.) Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
- Any stimulus that’s paired with the unconditioned stimulus (US) and eventually elicits a
response that is similar to the unconditioned response (UR/UCR)
4.) Conditioned Response (CR)
- The response triggered by the conditioned stimulus (CS) and it is identical to the unconditioned
Example (Triggers)(+Stimuli presented roughly at the same time)
Dog salivates on the sight of food, while a bell is ringing. Food= Salivation.
UR= Salivation, US= Food, CS= Bell
Bell + Food, BellSalivation. Bell used to be neutral, but after being associated with food, the dog would
respond by salivating. Bell (CS) Salivation (CR).
Family gatheringUncle approaches you and says hi while hitting/punching you You flinch.
(US) Slap Flinch (UR)
Hello + Slap = (CS) Slap Flinch (CR)
Advertisers believe that they can use classical conditioning to get consumers to buy their product(s).
Can be acquired through classical conditioning or observational learning. One traumatic conditioning
pairing is enough to have fear/phobia. Psychological disorder (Irrational fear of something)
(US) Gong Fear (UR)
Mouse + Gong
(CS) Mouse Fear (CR) (CS being the phobic stimulus)
Higher-Order Stimulus *Possible Question for Test 2
- Is when a well-established CS starts acting as though it was an US and is able to being the CR
under the control of a CS2.
- CS1: (US) Food Salivation (UR). Bell + Food = (CS) Bell Salivation (CR)
- CS2: Light + Bell= Light Salivation CR
↸ Higher-order stimulus
↸ Second-order stimulus
↸ Third-order stimulus
↸ Fourth-order stimulus X
- Is when a CR occurs in response to the other stimuli’s that are similar to the original CS used in
- The greater the similarity, the more likely generalization will occur
(US) Food Salivation (UR)
60000 H2 Bell + Food
(CS) 60000 H2 Salivation (CR) Psychology- Themes and Variations Class Notes
80000 H2 =? If it worked, stimuli generalization occurred
80000 H2 Bell Salivation
40000 H2 Bell Salivation
100,000 H2 No response, stimuli generalization doesn’t occur because it’s too different from the
Ex. You got bitten by a German Sheppard when you were little, you develop a phobia/ fear of dogs [all
dogs or big dogs]
- Is when a CR is elicited only in response to a CS that was paired with the US during training
- Being able to tell the difference with the CS presented in training
- Ex. Dog can tell the frequency used in training
- Is when the CS is no longer paired with the US over a period of time, the CS will elicit a CR that
gradually weakens and disappears
(US) Food Salivation (UR)
Bell + Food
(CS) Bell Salivation (CR)
- Getting rid of CR to CS
- Ex. Ring the bell without presenting food. Gradually, salivation response will get weaker,
extinguishing it sooner or later.
The reappearance of an extinguished CR when exposed the CS (after a rest period).
(*Possible S.A for Test #2)Contiguity: When 2 stimuli occur close together in time, they become
Pavlov claimed two things about contiguity:
 For conditioning to occur the US & CS must be contiguous.
 If any US & CS are paired together, conditioning will occur.
Exposed rats to (US) X-Rays Nausea (UR)
Solution + X-Ray (7 hrs in b/w)
(CS) Water Solution Nausea (CR)
Prepared learning: inborn tendency to associate
(US) X-ray Nausea (UR)
(CS) Water/Light/Noise + X-Ray (both contiguous)
Water Nausea (CR)
(US) Shock Fear (UR)
(CS) Water/Light/Noise + Shock
Light Fear (CR)
Noise Fear (CR)
Operant Conditioning (Skinner)
Learning through consequences.
 Voluntary Response Psychology- Themes and Variations Class Notes
 Consequence (Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement, Negative Punishment, Positive
Positive Reinforcer (Sr )
When something pleasant is introduced of added to the situation and this increases the probability of
the response (R) to re-occurring.
Factors that Increase effectiveness of a (Sr )-
 Magnitude of the (Sr ) Impact, size, strength
 Immediacy of (Sr )+
 Scheduling of the (Sr ) Pattern, how the (Sr ) is delivered
Fixed Ratio (FR) Variable ratio