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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Continguity (US) X-ray nausea (UR) solution (after 7 hours) – paired with X-ray (two stimuli were not contiguous) (CS) solution nausea (CR) Since there was such a long time gap, Garcia began wondering whether organisms have “prepared learning”. X-ray nausea water/light/noise + X-ray water nausea light None noise None If you were to take the water, light, or noise on its own, would you get a conditioned nausea response? (US) shock fear (UR) water/light/noise + shock water None light fear (CR) noise fear (CR) Garcia concluded that organisms are more prepared to associate certain stimuli with each other than others. For example, since mice consumed water, it’s more unlikely for them to develop fear for it. Operant Conditioning (Skinner) learning through consequences 3 Elements: 1) Stimulus (S) 2) Response (R) – VOLUNTARY response 3) Consequences: a) positive reinforce b) negative reinforce c) negative punishment d) positive punishment + Positive Reinforcer (Sr ) when something pleasant is added to the situation and thus increasesthe probability of the R reoccurring Factors that Influence the Effectiveness of a Sr : + 1) Magnitude of the Sr + 2) Immediacy of the Sr + 3) The Pattern of Reinforcement Continuous Sr Schedule a R is reinforced every single time it occurs (i.e. every single time you make your bed, I will give you a dollar; all of a sudden he doesn’t get it one day and decides not to make his bed until he gets his dollar) Partial Sr +Schedule a R is reinforced only some of the time (i.e. every once in a while, like 5 days or so, you receive a dollar for making your bed for the past couple of days; but one day I don’t give it to you, but it’s only one of the many other days you don’t get it, so it is more likely you will still make your bed that day) partial Sr schedule leads to more persistent behaviour than does a continuous schedule Cumulative Recorder
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