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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Evolution of Psychology Psychology • Derived from Greek words “psyche” meaning soul and “logos” meaning study of an object. • Intellectual parents were 19 century philosophy and physiology Wilhelm Wundt (German) • Father of psychology • Started first journal and laboratory for psychology research G. Stanley Hall (American) • First president of American Psychological Association • Studied with Wundt William James • Tried to understand the flow of consciousness • Started functionalism • Principles of Psychology – most influential text in psychology history John Watson • Founded behaviourism • “give me a dozen healthy infants...and I can turn them into whatever” Sigmund Freud • Coined the unconsciousness – thoughts, memories, desires, well below the surface of conscious awareness but nonetheless exerts great influence on behaviour. • “people are not masters of their own minds” • Freudian slips – blurting out words • Thought that behaviour was greatly influenced by how people cope with sexual urges B.F. Skinner • Radical behaviour – people more likely to respond to positive outcomes than neutral or negative outcomes (conditioned reflexes) • Wrote Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1971) • “all behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli” • “free will is an illusion” • Thought that people are affected by the environment around them, rather than making their own decisions. Behaviourism • theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour • behaviour refers to any observable response or activity by an organism • Stimulus: any detectable input from the environment • Behaviourists explored stimulus-response relationships, using animals as subjects Structuralism • Task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related • Introspection: careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experience • Sensation perception • Limitation: cannot depend solely on one’s reflection to document the phenomenon of consciousness Functionalism • Psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure • Darwin’s natural selection – heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations and thus come to be “selected” over time. • Paved way for behaviourism and applied psychology Perspective Contributors Subject Matter Basic Premise Behavioural John B Watson Effects of environment on Only observable events Ivan Pavlov the overt behaviour of (stimulus-response) can be B F Skinner humans and animals studied scientifically Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud Unconscious determinants Unconscious motives and Carl Jung of behaviour experience in early Alfred Adler childhood govern personality and mental disorders Humanistic Carl Rogers Unique aspects of human Humans are free, rational Abraham experience beings with the potential Maslow for personal growth, and they are fundamentally different from animals Cognitive Jean Piaget Thoughts; mental Human behaviour cannot Noam Chomsky processes be fully understood Herbert Simon without examining how people acquire store, and process information Biological James Old Physiological basis of An organism’s functioning Roger Sperry behaviour in humans and can be explained in terms David Hubel animals
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