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Psychology Lecture Notes #12.doc

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

January 16, 2013 Psychology Lecture # 12 Notes Memory (Modules 23, 25, 26) Theories of Independent Memory Status Memory Procedural Memory System (actions, perceptual-motor skills, Declarative Memory System conditioned reflexes, implicit (factual information, explicit memories) memories) Example – riding a bike • Semantic Memory System Episodic Memory System (General knowledge, stored (Dated recollections of personal undated) • experiences) Ex. Lincoln ga•e Gettybug Ex. First kiss Address • Storage in LTM o 1) Procedural Memory - Memory for how to do things (actions, skills) - Implicit Memory (conscious, automatic) • (Automatic processing) - When you aren’t trying to process information • Example: Riding a bike etc…. o 2) Declarative Memory - Memory for facts - Explicit memories (deliberate, conscious and effortful) - Subdivided into 2 types: • A) Semantic Memory – general information and things that we have overlearned  Example #1: What is the color of a $5 bill? Blue (overlearned)  Example #2: What do you usually for dinner in Christmas? Turkey • B) Episodic (comes from the word episode) Memory – memory for specific events  Usually unique events rather than regular events  Example #1: First day of university or first kiss  Example #2: What did you have for dinner last night?  Episodic Memory – own autobiography • Inability to Recall from LTM (Long-Term Memory) o The information is available but not accessible o Maybe you aren’t able to recall the information because it didn’t enter the memory system o Or maybe it did but it didn’t go through the LTM, if you aren’t paying attention it would have decayed in the sensory S – Sensory – STM – LTM o The tip of the tongue – the information is available but not accessible - Example: When you are talking with your friend and she mentions someone and you know the name of the person but the name is not being accessible • Why is the information not accessible? o 1) Context – Dependent Forgetting or Encoding Specifity Hypothesis - Not being able to recall something because the cues used at retrieval are different from those used at encoding (putting information in memory system) - You are using inappropriate search strategy • Example: You go to a party and you are introduced to different people. The next day your friend is talking about Jane Doe but you don’t remember Jane Doe. Then your friend is like “you know Jane Doe she’s dating John, and she was wearing a polka dot dress last night.” When your friend said that she wore a polka dot dress you remember who Jane Doe is. The cue you used as encoding was her dress because you thought it was ugly. The cue you used to retrieve the information is her polka dot dress. - State Dependent Forgetting • Your state or mood is different at encoding and at retrieval  Example: When you are studying for a test and listen to music it helps you study but then when you write the test you don’t have music so you don’t do as well S
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