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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

September 12, 2012 Psychology Lecture # 2 – Research Methods 1) Survey Methods  Consists of questions that are used to determine attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors  Surveys are mostly done on paper and pen or online rarely by telephone  There is no particular method that is superior than the other  Major advantage handing out surveys to people: - Very efficient (quick and easy, and you get a variety of people) - Not bias because it covers a variety of people - Anonymous  Disadvantages: - You have to answer to the options provided by the researcher - Open ended questions are rare because you have a lot of options and it takes away the efficiency of the research (if people are writing paragraphs it would be hard for the researches to compile data) - Researches design surveys on a rating scale (most of the time) - You need a large N (number of participants to take part in a survey) - Shouldn’t be too many questions - Miss interpretation of the question - Researchers tend to do a pilot study (mini trial of the study) - If there are any glitches or problems in the study then it can be resolved - Difficult to write a survey that is clear to everyone - How honest/accurate people’s answers are  When conducting a survey you want to study a large group of people and then the results would be true for the larger group of the population  Make sure you have a large group if you want these results Population Sample  In order to generalize from your sample of the population the sample must be representative of the population (the sample cannot be biased)  Example: Conducting a survey of teenagers drinking and doing drugs in Canada - Pick a sample of a smaller group which is the mini version of the population - If only you hand out the survey to teenagers in Toronto (GTA), its only in Toronto, not Canada - If you get both male and female, variety of age (13 -18), people from the city, suburban areas, and different parts of Canada etc.… only then you can generalize  The opposite of representative is bias  Only look at race, religion, ethnicity etc. if it is the purpose of your survey  Its important to use Random Sampling  Random Sampling: each person in the population has an equal chance of being in the sample  Example: if a hat contained everyone’s name in it and you pull out 25 names = Random Sampling  But if someone put their name 10x more in the hat, that person has 10x more their name being pulled out, therefore no equal chance  The larger the sample the better to determine the larger population  Representative depends on your survey 2) Naturalistic Observation – wants to describe or measure peoples behavior as they behave naturally in a natural setting  More interested or describing things happening in a natural environment  Example: observing kids at recess, see how they interact, see if bullying occurs  Advantages: - Assuming if these people would naturally behave whether or not you are there (you can generalize the findings)  Disadvantages: - Experimenter bias, expectancy affects - If a researcher is observing and observes bullying – be objective as you can and only record the behavior that they want to see - Researchers have certain expectations (sometimes they see what they expect to see) - Sometimes we see things the way we expects – powerful effect -
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