S – o - R
S – Memory – R
What already in our memory causes us to make decisions
Stress is the S-R relationship + argues that these relationships are
Insight: represents a change in the organization of a problem.
Information processing model : how the memory system is actually
Human memory: Encodestorageretrieval
Aktinson and Shiffrenth’s three stage model
Sensory Short term memory Long term
¼ or 1/5 of a sec
but they vary
Lasts for about 3-4secs.
If there is no attention
iconic and echoic will decay
Sensory memory Preserves information in its original form for a short time. The
sensation of the stimulus lingers briefly after the stimulus has
Ex: stares at a light bulb and when we close out eyes we can
still see the bulb.
Short term memory
Sometimes referred to as working memory.
Can hold information for about 15 to 20 seconds.
Has a limited capacity: it can only so much information at
once unlike sensory that can hold vast of information
It can hold 7 +/- 2
Works on a buffer system : displacement occurs which means
the memory’s gets kicks out in order to encode new memory.
Working memory model: STM is a very active part of the
memory. With short term memory a lot of visual and spatial
information going on.
Chunking : TVYMCAFBI
One unit of meaningful information
o TV YMCA FBI
o So there are 3 bits of information instead of 9 so
therefore easier to remember.
In order to get to LTM from STM, rehearsal is important, organize
into categorizes, visualizing the object, acronym
Apple dog hat shoe plump cat orange shirt cattle.
There are two types of rehearsal
1. maintenance rehearsal
Like a robot just repeating to get in your memory and it
doesn’t stay long but there is a chance that it might me long
term but possibility is low.
2. Elaborative rehearsal: “to elaborate”
to form associations
Mnemonics memory aid. Acronym
Peg word system: the rhythms
Grocery store ( 1 is a butter 2 is sugar… )
Method of loci: “location” When you walk into your living room there are the furniture
that are fixed in your mind and you associate each item with
something else to remember easily.
High imagery words: words that are easy visualize ( easy mental
picture) so easy to remember. These are better at recalling because
they are provide a dual code.
low imagery words: the words that are not really easy to visualize.
Long Term memory
Information is stored indefinitely or even permanently
Evidence that long term memory is permanent
Flash bulb memory
Age regression through hypnosis
Distributed or Massed Practice
Space effect: when time is distributed we do better
Massed practice: When they cram everything in the last
How to remember better
Testing effect: Repeatedly test yourself rather than just
recall. Because of this we are forcing ourselves to retrieve the
information from our memory.
Make information personally meaningful.
Levels(depth) of processing
We can process information at different level.
o LEVEL 1: Appearance : structural encoding (shallow
o LEVEL 2: Sound: Phonemic encoding ( deeper level of
processing, so better remembrance than structural