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Lecture 10

Psych 1010 lecture 10&11

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Memory Cognitive approach S – o - R Cognition  Acplict  Evaluate  Predict S – Memory – R  What already in our memory causes us to make decisions Behavior approach Stress is the S-R relationship + argues that these relationships are stamped in. Kohler Insight: represents a change in the organization of a problem. Memory Information processing model : how the memory system is actually set up. Computer: Inputprocessingoutput Human memory: Encodestorageretrieval Aktinson and Shiffrenth’s three stage model Sensory Short term memory Long term memory Iconic: visual ¼ or 1/5 of a sec but they vary Echoic: auditory Lasts for about 3-4secs. If there is no attention iconic and echoic will decay Sensory memory  Preserves information in its original form for a short time. The sensation of the stimulus lingers briefly after the stimulus has ended.  Ex: stares at a light bulb and when we close out eyes we can still see the bulb. Short term memory  Sometimes referred to as working memory.  Can hold information for about 15 to 20 seconds.  Has a limited capacity: it can only so much information at once unlike sensory that can hold vast of information  It can hold 7 +/- 2  Works on a buffer system : displacement occurs which means the memory’s gets kicks out in order to encode new memory.  Working memory model: STM is a very active part of the memory. With short term memory a lot of visual and spatial information going on. Chunking : TVYMCAFBI  One unit of meaningful information o TV YMCA FBI o So there are 3 bits of information instead of 9 so therefore easier to remember. In order to get to LTM from STM, rehearsal is important, organize into categorizes, visualizing the object, acronym Apple dog hat shoe plump cat orange shirt cattle. There are two types of rehearsal 1. maintenance rehearsal  Like a robot just repeating to get in your memory and it doesn’t stay long but there is a chance that it might me long term but possibility is low.  Formal: 2. Elaborative rehearsal: “to elaborate”  to form associations Mnemonics memory aid. Acronym Peg word system: the rhythms  Grocery store ( 1 is a butter 2 is sugar… ) Method of loci: “location”  When you walk into your living room there are the furniture that are fixed in your mind and you associate each item with something else to remember easily. High imagery words: words that are easy visualize ( easy mental picture) so easy to remember. These are better at recalling because they are provide a dual code. low imagery words: the words that are not really easy to visualize. Long Term memory  Unlimited capacity  Information is stored indefinitely or even permanently Evidence that long term memory is permanent  Flash bulb memory  Age regression through hypnosis Distributed or Massed Practice  Space effect: when time is distributed we do better  Massed practice: When they cram everything in the last minute How to remember better  Testing effect: Repeatedly test yourself rather than just recall. Because of this we are forcing ourselves to retrieve the information from our memory.  Make information personally meaningful. Levels(depth) of processing  We can process information at different level. o LEVEL 1: Appearance : structural encoding (shallow processing) o LEVEL 2: Sound: Phonemic encoding ( deeper level of processing, so better remembrance than structural
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