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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Research and Experimental Methods.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Jill Bee Rich

PSYC 1010 Lecture 2: Different Research Methods Survey Method  Consists of a set of written questions that are used to determine our beliefs, our attitudes and behaviours  Advantages: o Fast and cheap  Disadvantages o Validity and honesty  Typically, the surveys are “Anonymous” so people don’t know who you are and one can be honest o Interpretation  People may not understand the exact context of the question  Especially with an age gap etc  Solve it via a “Pilot study”  A mini study to alter possible errors in the study when the full-fledged study occurs o Need a very large sample of people  With a larger amount of people, errors are weeded out  In order to generalize from the sample to the population, the sample must be representative of the population o It helps when the samples are random Random Sampling  Each person in the population has an equal chance of being chosen for this sample o Problems occur if only 200 of 1000 people send back though because then there’s a bias Naturalistic Observation  Used to describe people behaviour as they are behaving in a NATURAL setting  It is noted that you want to minimize subject reactivity (subject-researcher contact) o Avoid eye-contact o Hiding/recording o Blend into the situation (Participant observation)  Advantages o Natural Setting  Shows usual behaviour and thus attained data is the typical behaviour in that setting (People are behaving naturally)  Easily generalized and applied to other real life situations PSYC 1010  Disadvantages o One cannot infer cause-and-effect  Cannot say that something is the cause of something else o One cannot interpret the observations o No control over situations because data may be few and fa
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