PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Pattern Recognition

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5 Feb 2013
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PSYC 1010
Chapter 7: Memory
Behavioural Approach
Interested in overt behaviour (overt is observable)
Stresses the SR relationship and argues these relationships are stamped in
Cognitive Approach
Cognitive being a thinking process, mental system
Agree that S and R are important elements
o Behaviourists have left out that something happens between S and R, being cognitive
processes
Cognition does happen in animals too, but at a lower level than humans
Kohler:
o He put bananas out of Chimpanzee’s reach, and he put boxes in the cage, found that
they used the boxes and bamboo sticks to get the bananas
Argues that organisms have insight the sudden understanding of how to solve a problem
Tinklepaw
o Monkeys: 3 containers put bananas under the upside down container moved them to
see if they remembered where the bananas were
Information Processes Approach to Memory
Input process output
Stimulus-memory stores it, processes it. Output-retrieval of memory
S Sensory Storehouse Short Term Memory (STM) Long term Memory (LTM)
Sensory Storehouse depending on the type of stimulus that enters it goes into certain areas
depending on the type of input. i.e. auditory goes into “echoic
o Preserves information in its original sensory for a short time (fraction of a second)
o Two things needed for info to go from sensory to short term memory
Attention
Pattern recognition
o Information can decay fade away as time elapses
Short Term Memory stimulus is encoded in short term memory, working memory
o Can hold information for approximately 15-20s
o 7±2 pieces of information can be held
This works on an array system, if full, it will replace an old word for a new one
This is called DISPLACEMENT
If one can organize, chunking can be used (increase capacity of the short term
memory storage)
Long Term Memory has unlimited storage capacity
o Info is stored permanently
o Evidence
Flash backs
Age regression through hypnosis
Electroshock therapy