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Chapter 7MemoryLecture part TWO.pdf

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PSYC 1010
Jill Bee Rich

Chapter 7, Second lecture November-22-12 11:43 AM Forgetting • More commonthan complete failure, is partial flavour and a cue is needed to access the information • Tip of the tongue • Hermann Ebbinghaus(1885) -Grandfather of forgetting • He studied recall of nonsense syllables (e.g. lah, rup, nol) • He found that there was a 'Curve of Forgetting" • Recalled Autobiographical more than Nonsense syllables • Most recalled to least: Autobiographical, prose/poetry/nonsensesyllables • When material is not meaningful, we will not rememberit very well, if related to own life and made personal-will remember • (Insert Graph of Forgetting Curve) • If he tested himself by a measure of recognition (two different nonsense syllables), he was able to recall more of them because of cues Retrieval Measures, continued • Retention-theproportion of material retained • Savings during relearning • There's a lot of material that seemslost, and unrecalled-yet if you sit down to learn the material again, you'll learn it faster (e.g. I quit piano 7 months ago, but was able to recall pieces faster after practising) Why do we Forget? • Inefficient encoding-if you don't pay attention, you might not have learned it • Decay-evaporatesand fades...more of a factor for forgetting short-termmemoryinformation than long-term memory • Once you have material in your longterm memory,but a year later you forgot it- it didn't decay but is inaccessible • Interference ○ Proactiveinterference: old learning interferes with new learning (e.g. Study psych first, and then psychologyand then took econ test, but could only rememberpsych and confused it with econ terms) ○ Retroactiveinterference: new learning interferes with old learning (e.g. Studying Spanish and French, French first and then Spanish, and you have a French test and you rememberonly the Spanish you studied) Peterson & Peterson (1959) Task • DEMONSTRATION: ○ BHL, and then 3 seconds of consecutivenumbers, and then another 3 letters(SQD) ranging for more than 10 seconds ○ More errors in a longer period of interference ○ For each word, write the related word  Exhibition-fair  Animal-seal  Part of body-feet  Transportation- plane  Football-pass  Crime-racket  Former U.S. President-bush  Music-rock  Personality-charm  Write-spell  Bird-cardinal  Sports- ball Why was it difficult? ○ Why was it difficult?  New words that weren't there the first time  Were thinking of first column words in correlation to second column  Seconds words are what have multiple meanings ○ Problem with encoding specificity  If you're tested in a different way, it makes it hard to rememberthe material  A mismatchbetween initial encoding and retrieval cue ○ Repression  Psychologicalreason for forgetting  If somebodyexperiencesa psychological trauma (e.g. raped or experienced crime scene) in some cases, it might be psychologicallydifficult to deal with so in that case MEMORY SYSTEMS ○ Episodic/Semantic  Outlined in 1972  Episodic: Memoryof personal experiences (autographical)  You can 'date' your memories  Semantic: system for handling information in terms of meanings and concepts- general knowledge ○ Procedural/Declarative  Procedural: memoryof cogn
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