PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Hermann Ebbinghaus, Psychological Trauma, Encoding Specificity Principle

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Published on 8 Feb 2013
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More common than complete failure, is partial flavour and a cue is needed to access the
information
Tip of the tongue
Hermann Ebbinghaus(1885) -Grandfather of forgetting
He studied recall of nonsense syllables (e.g. lah, rup, nol)
He found that there was a 'Curve of Forgetting"
Recalled Autobiographical more than Nonsense syllables
Most recalled to least: Autobiographical, prose/poetry/nonsense syllables
(Insert Graph of Forgetting Curve)
If he tested himself by a measure of recognition (two different nonsense syllables), he was
able to recall more of them because of cues
Forgetting
Retention-the proportion of material retained
Savings during relearning
There's a lot of material that seems lost, and unrecalled-yet if you sit down to learn the
material again, you'll learn it faster (e.g. I quit piano 7 months ago, but was able to recall
pieces faster after practising)
Retrieval Measures, continued
Inefficient encoding-if you don't pay attention, you might not have learned it
Decay-evaporates and fades...more of a factor for forgetting short-term memory information
than long-term memory
Once you have material in your longterm memory, but a year later you forgot it- it didn't decay
but is inaccessible
(e.g. Study psych first, and then psychology and then took econ test, but could
only remember psych and confused it with econ terms)
Proactive interference: old learning interferes with new learning
(e.g. Studying Spanish and French, French first and then Spanish, and you have a
French test and you remember only the Spanish you studied)
Retroactive interference: new learning interferes with old learning
Interference
Peterson & Peterson (1959) Task
BHL, and then 3 seconds of consecutive numbers, and then another 3 letters(SQD)
ranging for more than 10 seconds
More errors in a longer period of interference
Exhibition-fair
Animal-seal
Part of body-feet
Transportation- plane
Football-pass
Crime-racket
Former U.S. President-bush
Music-rock
Personality-charm
Write-spell
Bird-cardinal
Sports- ball
For each word, write the related word
Why was it difficult?
DEMONSTRATION:
Why do we Forget?
Chapter 7, Second lecture
November-22-12
11:43 AM
Chapters 7-9 Page 1
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