PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Preposition And Postposition, Metalinguistic Awareness

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12 Feb 2013
Language consists of symbols that convey meaning,
plus rules for combining these symbols, that can be
used to generate an infinite variety of messages
Spoken sounds and written words are used to
represent objects and events
Language is symbolic
A relationship exists between the look or sound
of the word and the object they stand for
Language is semantic or meaningful
A limited number of symbols can be combined
in infinite number of ways to generate an
endless array of messages
Although an infinite number of sentences can be
generated, these sentences must be structured
in a limited number of ways, rules apply.
Language is structured
What is Language?
The Structure of Language
The smallest units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually
Linguistics say humans are only capable of recognising only about 100 basic sounds
English language is made up of 40 phonemes
e.g. letter 'a' is pronounced differently in: father, had, call, take..
Morphemes There are approximately 50000 English morphemes, which include root
words as well as suffix and prefixes
e.g. fire, guard, cost consist of a single morpheme, unfriendly has 3 morphemes
Semantics is the area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of
words and word combinations
A word's meaning may consist of both is denotation( dictionary definition) and
connotation(emotional overtones and secondary implications)
Morphemes and Semantics
Syntax is a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences
A simple rule is that: a sentence must have both a subject and a verb
1-5 months:
- reflexive communication (crying, cooing, laughing
- they recognize phonemes in any language
6-8 months:
- babbling
- variety of sounds that represent phonemes
- first words/one-word sentences
- receptive vocab is greater than expressive (3-50 words)
- holophrases (meaningful use of a single word)
18-24: vocab spurt (approx. 20 new words/week)
- fast mapping -process by which children map a word onto
an underlying concept ager only one exposure
- over-extensions e.g., all 4-legged animals called "doggy",
call all round things 'ball'
- under-extensions e.g., only child's dog called "doggy"
-Their receptive vocabulary is larger than their productive
vocabulary(they can comprehend more words spoken by
others then they can actually produce to speak)
Approx. 2 years
- "telegraphic" speech- consists mainly of content words;
articles, preposition and other less critical words ommitted
- use 2 words to communicate "where" & "what"
End of 3rd year:
- complex ideas, plural, past tense
Syntax & grammar acquired
- ages 3-5
e.g. "I hitted the ball"
Over-regularizations - occur when grammatical rules are
incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do
not apply
School Age Children
At school age, children begin to develop metalinguistic
awareness ( the ability to reflect on the use of language.)
Language Development
Bilingualism is the acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabulary, and
grammatical rules
Studies have found that
Learning more than one language: Bilingualism
Chapter 8-Text Book Notes (Language)
3:38 PM
Chapters 7-9 Page 1
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