The smallest units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually. Linguistics say humans are only capable of recognising only about 100 basic sounds. English language is made up of 40 phonemes e. g. letter "a" is pronounced differently in: father, had, call, take Morphemes there are approximately 50000 english morphemes, which include root words as well as suffix and prefixes e. g. fire, guard, cost consist of a single morpheme, unfriendly has 3 morphemes. Semantics is the area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations. A word"s meaning may consist of both is denotation( dictionary definition) and connotation(emotional overtones and secondary implications) Syntax is a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences. A simple rule is that: a sentence must have both a subject and a verb. Bilingualism is the acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabulary, and grammatical rules.