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PSYCH1010 Personality Theory Lecture - Feb 16 .docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Personality Theory People who study personality - Marketing experts - Lawyers - Insurance companies - Law enforcement personnel - Guidance/career counsellors What is personality? - Textbook definition: an individual’s distinct and relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviours - Comes from a Latin word meaning persona meaning mask - Implies individuality o The study of personality seek the way we are similar to one another and in the ways we are different from each other - Implies consistency o People tend to show some sort of consistency in their behaviour over time therefore our behaviour is some what predictable even when the situations change Different theorists - Sigmund Freud – developed the theory of psychoanalysis - Karen Horney - Carl Jung - Alfred Adler - Carl Rogers - Abraham Maslow SIGMUND FREUD - Psychoanalytic theory is the first modern theory - Believes that personality is shaped by an unconscious - Developed ICEBERG MODEL OF PERSONALITY - Conscious (tip of the iceberg) o What a person is aware of at a particular moment - Unconscious (below the service) o Contains thoughts, feelings, and memories  Psychoanalysis - A technique for uncovering buried contents of the mind that influence behaviour - If you can reveal a persons unconscious then you’ll be able to resolve the persons problems - 5 primary techniques to reveal the unconscious 1. Free association: report everything that comes to mind (unfiltered) – since normally when we say things we think before we talk 2. Dream analysis: particular detail in someone’s dream does not mean the same thing in someone else’s dream – leads to the idea of wish fulfillment 3. Errors (e.g. slips of the tongue) 4. Transference (redirection of feelings from one person to another) 5. Hypnosis  Freudian Personality Structure - The ID (irrational) o Exists totally in our unconscious mind that is present from birth o It is a reservoir of drives and instincts o Has no direct contact with reality therefore it cannot get what it needs directly from the environment o Operates on pleasure principle – does not care about any self sacrifice o Seeks immediate gratification - The Ego (rational) o Functions primarily at a conscious level o Operates on a reality principle o Tries to check out a situation and tries to decide when it is best o Postpones gratification – waits until the moment is acceptable o Controls the ID impulses o The executive of the personality - The Superego (irrational) o The moral arm of the personality o Functions mostly unconscious o This is known as internalization – morals, internalizes values and ideals of society o Responsible for self-control o It is irrational – tries to block the ID gratifications permanently Structure Levels of thought Operating principle Description ID Unconscious; primary Pleasure Source of psychic process energy and instinctual impulses EGO Largely conscious; Reality Mediator among the secondary process id, the superego, and external reality SUPEREGO Largely conscious; Idealistic Comprises the unconscious conscience (prohibitions, based on punishments) and the ego ideal (ideal behaviours, based on rewards) ANXIETY - An increase in tension that motivates the ego to deal with a problem - Realistic coping b
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