PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Oral Stage, Oedipus Complex, 18 Months
study module 3 hard.
B) Inferential stats
- provide us with a way of determining how much confidence we
can have from results obtained form samples by telling us how
likely it is that results are due to CHANCE done
Probability level P=0.5 = 5%
if the probility level is less that 0.5 then the results are
then the results are due to chance.
Bio psycho social Approach module 1
learned fears and other learned expectations
cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations
natural selection of adaptive physiology and behaviors
genes responding to the environment
Ex: Sara is really smart.. why is she smart? What makes her
Social culture influences
presence of others
cultural, societal, and family expectations
peer and other group influences
compelling models(such as media)
The behaviors in evolutionary perspective is very adaptive
Psychoanalytic (Freud): we are governed by unconscious processes.
Psychodynamic (neo Freudian) How behaviors springs from
unconscious drives and conflicts :
Freud: discussed in module 40
compulsion is rewarded by anxiety that they relieve: behavioral
compulsion is an unconscious childhood issue : psychodynamic
Instincts : basic building blocks of Freuds’ theory
1. Life instincts
o Libido: sexually instinct
2. Death instinct
o Inborn tendency of aggression.
Structures of personality
Id Contains the instincts
only structure present at birth
unconscious & has no contact with reality
irrational & amoral
Based on the pleasure principal
seeks self- indulgence
wants immediate gratification
It can reduce tension in 2ways
1. reflex activity
2. primary process thinking ( fantasying)
Develops around 13-15 months of age
is in direct contact with reality
helps the id become satisfied in socially acceptably wraps
evaluates the environments
strives for a delay in gratification
used secondary process thinking ( real thinking )
based on the reality principal
Super EGO : develops around 4 years
represents the moral aspects
contains the ideals and values
tries to seek perfections
allows for self-control
tries to block all gratification
based on the moral principal
Ex: you have a test tomorrow and all ready to study but a friend comes and
asks you to come out and have fun then come back and study. What would
the egos say?
ego: tells you to go, go out and have fun.
super ego : don’t even think about going
conscious : it is right there
preconscious : a level below your consciousness, mental events can become
conscious through attention
unconscious: mental events more or less unavailable to conscious, not
Ego and super Ego are partly in conscious and preconscious, and
unconscious. But ID is only in unconscious.
Stages of Psychosexual Development
basic component of ID is aggression and sexual.
There are 5 stages and each stages have Erogenous Zone (EZ): zones that
need pleasure- producing stimulation to reduce tension.