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Psychology Lecture # 14 Notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

January 30, 2013 Psychology Lecture # 14 Notes Intelligence Continued (Modules 27-31)  Structure of I.Q. (Factor theories) - 2 views: 1) I.Q. is “general capacity” o Do well across a variety of tasks 2) I.Q. is made up of individual, independent abilities o Smart in one area but not so much in others  Factor Analysis – is a statistical technique that determines whether a question of a test or across tests are related to one another - Spearman also did factor analysis and found everything is correlated, which is one factor which is referred to as „G factor‟ (one factor) o Ex. Draw diagram:  Nature-Nurture Controversy 1) Family Studies – try to assess the influence of heredity on intelligence (I.Q.) by examining blood relatives and seeing how familiar their I.Q. scores are o Sometimes called concordant studies (correlation) Ex. If you look at a pair of relatives and study the correlation in I.Q. scores. They first look at 1 degree relatives (brother and sister or parent and child) – share about 50% of their genes. 2 degree relative rd (aunt and niece) – share 25% of their genes. 3 degree relatives – share 12.5% of their genes. o They found out that the closer you are related, the more correlation. But there is a confounding variable – which can be the environment. 2) Twin Studies – identical twins (share 100% of their genes) are compared to fraternal twins (share 50% of their genes) o Correlation is higher when identical twins are raised together in the same household, suggests that the environment plays a role. But when twins are apart (different households) the correlation is lower for their I.Q. o The problem with this study is that their sample size is small o As well as for the environment even though the twins are separated they still did share their pre-natal environment 3) Adoption studies – adoptive parent and child  Both genetics and the environment influence I.Q. but how do they interact with one another? - Heredity sets the limits on I.Q. and the environment determines where a person falls within these limits (reaction range) - Reaction range – refers to the genetically determined limits on I.Q. this range is about 20-25 I.Q. points - Draw diagram:  Flynn Effect – (environment plays a role on I.Q.) - Performance on I.Q. test has generally, progressively, steadily over generations - An I.Q. today is set at 100 but your I.Q. today may be 100 but in the 1930‟s that would have been an I.Q. of 120 o The environment could play a role or maybe we are getting better at performing tasks Motivation of Work also Emotions (Module 32-37 but for Module 33 only 33-4)  Motivation has two components: A) Drive 9the energy/urge to accomplish something) or Arousal (energizing or activation physiologically or mental) B) Gold Directed Behavior – motivation/drive behind what you want  Theories of Motivation
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