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Chapter 14d.docx

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Chapter 14  Medical model- proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease  Diagnosis – distinguishing one illness from another  Etiology – Apparent causation and developmental history of illness  Prognosis – forecast about the probable course of an illness Abnormal Behaviour  There are three criteria for abnormal behavior o Deviance – Maladaptive behaviours – Personal Distress o Deviance – Behaviours that deviate from social exceptions o Maladaptive behaviours – when the behavior interferes with occupational functioning  Ie: drug abuse o Personal distress – A judgement by the patient themselves  Ie: anxiety or depression  Three prominent stereotype of mental illness  Psychological disorders are incurable  People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous  People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people  Psychodiagnosis: The classification of disorders  The current edition (DSM-IV) was released in 1994 and slightly revised in 2000 Chapter 14  People may receive diagnoses on both Axes 1 and II, the remaining axes are used to record supplemental information  David Rosenhan showed that pseudo patients were routinely admitted to mental hospitals  Comorbidity – The coexistence of two or more disorders (major problem with DSM-IV)  Epidemiology – The study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population  Prevalence – refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period  The most common types of psychological disorders are 1. Substance use disorder (alcohol, drugs) 2. Anxiety disorders 3. Mood disorders  A dimensional approach is becoming preferred to a categorical approach Anxiety Disorders – disorders are a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety  Generalized anxiety disorder – marked by a chronic high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat o Sometimes called free floating anxiety because it is nonspecific o Gradual onset and seen more in females Chapter 14  Phobic Disorder – persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger o Ie: Acrophobia. Claustrophobia. brontophobia and hydrophobia  Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia – is characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occurs suddenly and unexpectedly o When their concern about the next panic attack grows enough they develop a fear of going out of public spaces (agoraphobia)  Obsessive –Compulsive disorder –persistent, uncontrollable intrusion of unwanted thoughts (obsessions ) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) o Mysophobia – contamination and germ  Post-Traumatic stress disorder –re-experiencing of the traumatic event in the form of a nightmare and flashback o The frequency and severity of post-traumatic symptoms usually decline gradually over time  Concordance rate – indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same disorder o Jerome Kagan  15-20% of infants display an inhibited termperament o Anxiety sensitivity may make many people vulnerable o Many anxiety responses may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning  Martin Seligman’s concept of preparedness -suggests that people are biologically prepared by their evolutionary history to acquire some fears much more easily.  Cognitive theorist maintain that certain styles of thinking make some people particularly vulnerable to anxiety disorders o Misinterpret harmless situations as threatening o Focus excessive attention on perceived threats o Selectively recalling information that seems threatening  There is a found association between stress and the development of social phobias Chapter 14 Dissociative Disorders- are a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity  Three dissociative syndromes are, Dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue and dissociative identity disorder  Dissociative amnesia – is a sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting  Dissociative fugue –people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity o These people forget their names, their families, where they live and where they work  Dissociateive identity disorder (DID) (aka. Multiple personality disorder)– involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete and usually very different, personalities o The various personalities are often unaware of each other o Seen more in women then men  Etiology of Dissociative Disorders – o Some theorist believe that people with dissociative disorders are engaging in intentional roleplaying to use an exotic mental illness as a face savingexcuse for their personal failings. These disorders may be rooted in emotional trauma that occurred during childhood Chapter 14 Mood Disorders - a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds hat may spill over to disrupt physical perceptual, social and thought processes  Unipolar disorder – experience emotional extreme at just one end of the mood continuum  for example – only troubled by depression o bipolar disorder - vulnerability at both ends of the mood continuum, going through periods of both depression and mania (excitement and elation)  Major Depressive Disorder - people show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure  Anhedonia – a diminished ability to experience pleasure  Dysthymic disorder – consists of chronic depression that is insufficient in severity to justify diagnosis of a major depressive episode Chapter 14 o Research finds the prevalence of depression is about twice as high in women as it is in men  Biploar Disorder – is characterized by experience of one or more manic episode as well as periods of depression o seen equally in both genders o typical onset is in adolescence or early adulthood  Cyclothymic disorder – when they exhibit chronic but relatively mild symptoms of bipolar disturbance o Althought not rare, bipolar disorders are much less common than unipolar disorders  Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a type of dep
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