PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Dissociative Identity Disorder, Fugue State, Psychogenic Amnesia

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Page:
of 12
Chapter 14
Medical model- proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease
Diagnosis distinguishing one illness from another
Etiology Apparent causation and developmental history of illness
Prognosis forecast about the probable course of an illness
Abnormal Behaviour
There are three criteria for abnormal behavior
o Deviance Maladaptive behaviours Personal Distress
o Deviance Behaviours that deviate from social exceptions
o Maladaptive behaviours when the behavior interferes with occupational functioning
Ie: drug abuse
o Personal distress A judgement by the patient themselves
Ie: anxiety or depression
Three prominent stereotype of mental illness
Psychological disorders are incurable
People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous
People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people
Psychodiagnosis: The classification of disorders
The current edition (DSM-IV) was released in 1994 and slightly revised in 2000
Chapter 14
People may receive diagnoses on both Axes 1 and II, the remaining axes are used to record
supplemental information
David Rosenhan showed that pseudo patients were routinely admitted to mental hospitals
Comorbidity The coexistence of two or more disorders (major problem with DSM-IV)
Epidemiology The study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
Prevalence refers to the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period
The most common types of psychological disorders are
1. Substance use disorder (alcohol, drugs)
2. Anxiety disorders
3. Mood disorders
A dimensional approach is becoming preferred to a categorical approach
Anxiety Disorders disorders are a class of disorders marked by feelings of
excessive apprehension and anxiety
Generalized anxiety disorder marked by a chronic high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
o Sometimes called free floating anxiety because it is nonspecific
o Gradual onset and seen more in females
Chapter 14
Phobic Disorder persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger
o Ie: Acrophobia. Claustrophobia. brontophobia and hydrophobia
Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia is characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually
occurs suddenly and unexpectedly
o When their concern about the next panic attack grows enough they develop a fear of going out of
public spaces (agoraphobia)
Obsessive Compulsive disorder persistent, uncontrollable intrusion of unwanted thoughts (obsessions ) and
urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
o Mysophobia contamination and germ
Post-Traumatic stress disorder re-experiencing of the traumatic event in the form of a nightmare and
flashback
o The frequency and severity of post-traumatic symptoms usually decline gradually over time
Concordance rate indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs of relatives who exhibit the same
disorder
o Jerome Kagan
15-20% of infants display an inhibited termperament
o Anxiety sensitivity may make many people vulnerable
o Many anxiety responses may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through
operant conditioning
Martin Seligman’s concept of preparedness -suggests that people are biologically prepared by their evolutionary
history to acquire some fears much more easily.
Cognitive theorist maintain that certain styles of thinking make some people particularly vulnerable to anxiety
disorders
o Misinterpret harmless situations as threatening
o Focus excessive attention on perceived threats
o Selectively recalling information that seems threatening
There is a found association between stress and the development of social phobias

Document Summary

Medical model- proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease. Diagnosis distinguishing one illness from another. Etiology apparent causation and developmental history of illness. Prognosis forecast about the probable course of an illness. There are three criteria for abnormal behavior: deviance maladaptive behaviours personal distress, deviance behaviours that deviate from social exceptions, maladaptive behaviours when the behavior interferes with occupational functioning. Ie: drug abuse: personal distress a judgement by the patient themselves. People with psychological disorders are often violent and dangerous. People with psychological disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people. The current edition (dsm-iv) was released in 1994 and slightly revised in 2000. People may receive diagnoses on both axes 1 and ii, the remaining axes are used to record supplemental information. David rosenhan showed that pseudo patients were routinely admitted to mental hospitals. Comorbidity the coexistence of two or more disorders (major problem with dsm-iv)