Being “fixed” at a particular stage. Sometimes it occurs because the child likes the stage and all
their needs are being met. Another reason is, if your needs are not being met so you stay a little
longer to see if your needs with me gratified.
Regression (defense mechanism):
-If a situation is frustrating during the genital stage, the person might regress or revert to earlier
-If we become frustrated about something, we can go back and engage in behaviours that you
will see in earlier stages oPsychosexual Development. Ex and adult biting their nails or when a child
gets a new sibling they might start wetting the bed again.
Neurotic anxiety: considered not normal. Is produced by fear that the ego will not have adequate
control over the id and that id impulses will surface.
Neurotic anxiety Ego
o Provide and indirect release of id energy
o When the id energy is released, anxiety is reduced
Some defense mechanisms:
Denial: Refusing to believe a reality that creates anxiety. Ex forgetting a test was on a certain
day when the test is really important.
Repression: You block from awareness painful emotions. You make something unconscious.
You don’t actively try to do this, it just happens on its own. Projection: Perceiving personal characteristics in others that you cannot admit in yourself.
Someone has a personal trait that brings them anxiety and to reduce that anxiety they say
someone else has that trait not them. Ex. I’m not jealous, you are or I don’t gossip, you do.
Displacement (scapegoating): when you direct your feelings or actions, not to the original
source but to a substitute target. Ex. Having a bad day and getting angry at your mom when she
asks how your day was.
Reaction formation: Where you cover up your true unconscious feelings by acting in the
opposite way. Ex. Your ex leaves you for another girl and you invite them to dinner so you can
Rationalization: You make up a rational explanation to reduce your anxiety. What you’re
making up is not true. Ex. Not studying for a test and then doing bad, rationalizi