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Lecture 3

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PSYC 1010
Gerry Goldberg

Cells in the Nervous System o Neurons o Basic links that permit communication within the nervous system o Soma contains cell nucleus and much of the normal chemical machinery o Dendrites specialized to receive information o Axon long thin fibre that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands o Myelin sheath insulating material that encases some axons o Terminal buttons small knobs that secrete neurotransmitters o Synapse junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another o Glia o Account for over 50 of brains volume o Supply nourishment to neurons help remove neurons waste products and provide insolation around many axons o They also orchestrate the development of the nervous system in the human embryo o Can also send and receive chemical signals o Play important role in memory formation and the experience of chronic pain The Neural Impulse o AllorNone Law the action being made has to fully happen or not happen at all The action cannot halfhappen just like you cant halffire a gunHowever you can change the rate at which the action happens CellCell Communication o Synaptic cleft microscopic gap between terminal button of one neuron and cell membrane of the other o Neurotransmitters chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another o Two kinds of messages sent from cell to cell o Excitatory PSP positive voltage shift that increases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials o Inhibitory PSP negative voltage shift that decreases the likelihood that the postsynaptic neuron will fire action potentials Integrating Signals Neural Networks o Synaptic pruning key process in the formation of the neural networks that are crucial to communication in the nervous system Neurotransmitters and Behaviour o Acetylcholine
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