PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Memory Span, Mnemonic, Working Memory
Winter Term Lecture #1
Memory (Mod 23, 25, 26)
- OVERT behaviour (observable)
- Believe that the S-R (stimulus response) relationships are “stamped in” to the
- Cognition is a term about thinking and mental processes
- Is an offshoot, derived from the behavioural perspective
S - O - R
Insight: Change in the organization of a problem or the sudden understanding of
how to solve a problem.
Stimulus Memory Response
Information Processing Model: (3 stage Model)
- Inputprocessingoutput (reg. computer)
- S Sensory STM(short-term memory)
Sensory Memory: preserves information in its original sensory form for a short
time. The sensation of the stimulus lingers briefly after the stimulus has ended. Ex.
If you scan an entire room of people, all of that information on your visual would
make its way to brain. When someone is talking and the last word feels like its
ringing in your mind.
STM: information you’re currently working on. It can hold information for 15-25
seconds. It has a limited capacity and can hold 7 -+ pieces of info(memory span).
Generally in short term memory we can hold anywhere from 5-9 pieces of
information. It works on a “buffer system”.
- Displacement: when your memory replaces a new piece of information for
Working memory Model:
Chunking: a unit of meaningful information
lasts ¼ a
Maintenance Rehearsal: repeating the word, nothing more than that.
Elaborative rehearsal: making associations. Ex. Catergorize
From ST to LT = Elaborative rehearsal
Formal rehearsal technique
Mnemonic- memory aid(any trick you use to remember) Ex.
a) Peg-word system
b) Method of loci(location): remember the location of things that are fixed or
stable, associate your too be remembered information with items that are in
a particular location
c) ACRONYMS: take the first letter of each word that needs to be remembered
and make a word. EX. HOMES = 5 greats
High vs. Low-imagery words
Low: don’t conjure up a mental image ex. The, a, because
High: do conjure up a mental image (better recalled because they have “Dual
LTM: has an unlimited capacity. Information is stored indefinitely or permanently.
- Evidence: because of “tip of the toungue” phenomenon this is hard to prove
1. Flashbulb memories
2. Age regression through hypnosis
Distributed vs. Massed Practice(cramming)
- Spacing effect