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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Hernan Humana
Semester
Fall

Description
MEMORY  August 31, 2007  LONDON (AP) — Diana was solemnly remembered Friday at a service attended by the Queen, Prince Charles, her sons William and Harry, and her own family on the 10th anniversary of her death in a Paris car crash. Memory: Good and Bad – AJ and EP  A Case of Unusual Autobiographical Remembering  Authors: Elizabeth S. Parker; Larry Cahill ; James L. McGaugh  This report describes AJ, a woman whose remembering dominates her life. Her memory is "nonstop, uncontrollable, and automatic." AJ spends an excessive amount of time recalling her personal past with considerable accuracy and reliability. If given a date, she can tell you what she was doing and what day of the week it fell on. She differs from other cases of superior memory who use practiced mnemonics to remember vast amounts of personally irrelevant information. We propose the name hyperthymestic syndrome, from the Greek word thymesis meaning remembering, and that AJ is the first reported case.  Neurocase, Volume 12, Issue 1 February 2006 , pages 35 - 49  AJ  E.g.,  She remembers  She remembers  And everything  EP  61, grandfather type, likes to laugh  Amnesia – anterograde (can’t form new memories) and retrograde (can’t remember old memories – since 1960)  Lives  15 years  ate away his hippocampus (and adjoining areas) that form our memories Mental Time Travel: Remembering (re-experience) and forecasting ahead (pre- experience)  Addis, D.R., Wong, A.T., & Schacter, D.L. (2007). Remembering the past and imagining the future: Common and distinct neural substrates during event construction and elaboration. Neuropsychologia, 45, 1363-1377 In traveling through time, we use our episodic memories to simulate what might happen in the future, we “project ourselves into the future based on what we remember from the past” Schacter & Addis, 2007, p. 27). fMRI study – similar brain locations used when remembering and imagining the future (cue word – past/future e.g., successful) -although some differences, medial temporal, parietal and prefrontal regions showed increases in activity in remembering the past and imagining the future relative to the control conditions Memory: Structure and Process  -structure vs. process (alternative/complimentary)  STRUCTURE Sensory Memory - -  Short Term Memory (STM) -system that lasts less than 20 sec. and holds infor. that is:  Long Term Memory (LTM)  -permanent (?) and almost unlimited capacity  and process  Encoding, storage, retrieval, forgetting SENSORY MEMORY Sperling – visual sensory memory -everything, 1/10 of a second example: to test capacity G H Q T V I M C S B D N  -problem of this method to test capacity hypothesis ???? - …. Sooo… its impossible to test capacity with this method changes?? Partial Report Method -training - if hear high tone ---- middle tone – low tone ---- Procedure – training – see matrix – hear tone - recall  gets around the problem by??  -to test duration vary the interval between when see matrix and when see tone  conclude: very brief duration/ and enormous capacity. STM – “working memory”  inf’n from sensory memory or LTM  from sensory:  automatic –  intentional/controlled  consciously select what to attend to  to examine attention  use the shadowing task unattended ear attended ear -word list -follow story  -unaware except “special words” STM – capacity  Miller 7 +/- 2   recall = 6 or 7 out of 10   recall = 2 out of 2 “chunks”  by chunking infor. can enhance memory – can work for studying (takes practice but pays off in the end)  duration of STM – Peterson & Peterson task  word “filled” delay recall  list (no rehearsal)  if vary delay, can test duration = 18 sec.  LTM  -transfer from STM  through – rehearsal: a) maintenance  b) elaborative * Encoding…  -semantic encoding – meaning  schema: “pre-existent cognitive structures representing an organized body of knowledge concerning a specific class of objects” Elaborative Rehearsal  ie.-giving additional meaning (often idiosyncratic) to the to-be-remembered material  e.g. – through associations  through organization  for eg.  my course outline – chpt order  studying – reorganize the chapter content  elaborate on meaning by relating it to your self e.g. operant conditioning of your dog  enhance “meaning” or “memorability” Homework for next week Schemas: Types of Social Schemas  Person Schemas  persons e.g.,  types of people e.g.,  occupations – e.g., -  social roles e.g.,  racial/ethnic groups  Event Routine events: e.g. restaurant, sequence of events O
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