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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

HH PSYC 1010 I REBECCA JUBIS Wednesday, September 12, 2012 RESEARCH METHODS 1) SURVEY METHOD- consists of questions to determine attitudes and behaviours ADVANTAGES: efficient, anonymous DISADVANTGES: you need a large N (# of participants who take part in the study), misinterpretation, honesty (in terms of accuracy) - In order to generalize from your sample to the population, the sample must be representative of the population (the sample cannot be biased)  RANDOM SAMPLING- each person in the population has an equal chance of being in the sample 2) NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION- describe/ measure people’s behaviour as they behave naturally in a natural setting ADVANTAGES: people behave naturally= generalize information retrieved DISADVANTAGES: experimenter biased/ expectancy affect (you see what you want to see), subject reactivity (reacting to being observed)  participant observant, hidden cameras (private vs. public interference/ issue), cannot infer cause & effect, accuracy of observations (more than one observer, inter observer reliability) 3) EXPERIMENTAL METHOD- usually conducted in a laboratory, you analyze the cause & effect of the study (full control of the variables) - Two variables that are applied: 1) INDEPENDENT VARIABLE (cause)  the variable that the experimenter changes or manipulates to see if it has an effect on a particular behaviour 2) DEPENDENT VARIABLE (effect)  the behaviour that’s being measured to see if the independent variable has an effect - CONTROL GROUPthe group that is used as the basis for comparison, it gets the 0 level/amount of the independent variable, the control group is = to the experimental group in every way, except for the independent variable  When a control group gets or doesn’t get alcohol, the group that does not get alcohol would be a better choice- different expectation on their memory (If the behavior has to do with alcohol or something else)  In the placebo control group all groups have similar expectations  When everything is the same except for independent variable you can guarantee a fair study PLACEBO CONTROL GROUP: (usually used in drug-related studies where people might have strong expectations about drug effects)  Is a special type of control group that is used to control for subjects expectations that could affect results  If the control group is given a placebo, then it’s assumed that all groups (the control and experimental groups) are equal in terms of their expectation, and so, any differences in behavior (memory) can be attributed to the actual amount of alcohol consumed, and not to expectation - One variable you do NOT want is a confounding variable CONFOUNDING VARIABLE: a variable that interferes with the results of the study. It affects the dependent variable so you don’t know whether the affects are caused by the independent variable or the confounding variable, or both - Independent Variable ------------- Dependent Variable Confounding Variable (expectation) ^^ RANDOM ASSIGNMENT: by doing this, you are assuming that all individual difference variables are being evenly distributed among groups so that the groups are equivalent in every way except for the independent variable 4) CORRELATION METHOD- it measures the degree of relationship between two variables. There is no attempt to manipulate or control variables Rather, naturally occurring variations on two variables are measured to see if they are related
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