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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYC 1010 REBECCA JUBIS MOTIVATION & WORK; EMOTIONS MOTIVATION HAS 2 COMPONENTS: 1) Drive or Arousal 2) Goal- Directed Behaviour THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1) Freud’s Life & Death Instincts 2) Instinct Theories - prewired to behave in a certain way - fixed action patterns, if animals encounter a given stimulus they respond automatically to that stimulus (in-born) 3) Sociobiological View - everything is motivated for our desire to pass on our genetic information to future generations; ensuring the survival of our genes 4) Hull’s Drive- Reduction Theory - biological needs or deficiencies increase our drive (arousal) all behaviours are geared towards satisfying these needs and returning drive (arousal) to a ‘0’ level  E= D x H --> probability = drive(energized) x habit strength( how well practiced a response is)  CRITICISM: not all needs are biological; hunger drive is ‘0’ after a large meal but you still settle for pie even though you are stuffed= incentives INCENTIVES: anticipated rewards (learned)  drive theories refer to how internal states push us  Incentive theories refer to how external stimuli pull us 5) Optimal Level of Arousal Theory (Hebb) - moderate optimal level of arousal (somewhere in the middle)  if we are at an extremely high level of arousal, we are going to be motivated to reduce that arousal back to a more comfortable optimal level (not to ‘0’)  but sometimes we want to increase our arousal level to a moderate optimal level of arousal (i.e. exercise, coffee)  there’s a relationship between someone’s level of arousal and how well they perform on a task= inverted U curve o Extroverts- low level of arousal, do things to increase their arousal to bring them to a more optimal level o Introverts- high level of arousal, do things to decrease their arousal to bring them to a more optimal level 6) Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale  we differ from each other in the way we seek sensations (in dangerous behaviours); if your level of arousal is too low, you are more likely to want to engage in risky behaviours (decreases with age) CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH SENSATION-SEEKERS a) Thrill & Adventure Seeking b) Experience Seeking c) Disinhibition d) Susceptibility to Boredom CONFLICT - Exists when a person has two or more competing motives; 2 incompatible responses exist simultaneously, but both cannot be satisfied - Two types of motives: 1) Approach Motive; there is a reward to be gained 2) Avoidance Motive; there is a consequence to be gained - TYPES OF CONFLICTS 1) Approach Approach Conflict; there are two ends goals, and you are motivated to attain both [ + , + ] 2) Avoidance Avoidance Conflict; there are two end goals, but they are negative; and you must pick one even though it is unpleasant [ - , -] 3) Approach Avoidance Conflict; one end goal; but unfortunately it has positive and negative things associated with it [ + , - ] COGNITIVE DISSONANCE - Change our attitude in line with our behaviour at the time  [ + , + ] using an approach approach conflict - E.g. you want both a computer and shoes( must choose one); lets say you pick the co
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