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Chapter notes 2,12,appendix B These notes have all the key terms in chapters 2, 12 and Appendix B. It also has some key information from the text. It also has names of some psychologists mentioned in these chapters and some basic info on their theories.

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Chapter 2 The Research Enterprise in PsychologyScientific Enterprise Goals1Measurement and description Develop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behaviour clearly and precisely2Understanding and prediction Hypothesis understand events when they can explain the reason for the occurrence of the events3Application and controle scientists hope that the information gathered will be of some practical value Theory A system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observationsTheory Construction Theory hosts testable hypothesisIf the evidence supports hypothesis confidence goes upIf the evidence doesnt support hypothesis confidence declinesOperational definition describes the actions or operation that will be used to measure or control a variable Establish precisely what is meant by each variable in the context of a studyParticipantssubjects personsanimals whose behaviour is systematically observed in a studyData collection techniques procedures for making empirical observations and measurements Journal a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiryScientific Approach 2 main advantages1Clarity and precision2Relative intolerance of errorResearch Methods consist of various approaches to the observation measurement manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies general strategies for conducting studiesThe Experiment A research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a resultIndependent Variable Experimenter controls manipulatesDependent Variable Depends on independentExperimental group control group 2 groups of subjectsExperimental group Special treatment in regard to independent variableControl group Do no receive special treatment given to experimental groupExtraneous variables any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variableConfounding of variables 2 variables are linked together in a way that makes it different to sort out their specific effectsRandom Assignment subjects occur when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the studyNaturalistic Observation Researcher engages in careful observation of behaviour without intervening directly with subjectsCase Study In depth investigation of an individual subjectWhen a case study is conducted on a suicide victim the study is called Psychological autopsiesSurvey Questionnaires or interviews to gather info about specific aspects of participants behaviourDescriptive Correlation ResearchAdvantagesCan explore questions that could not be examined with experimental proceduresBroadens the scope of phenomena that psychologists are able to studyDisadvantagesInvestigators cannot control events to isolate cause and effectStatistics use of mathematics to organize and summarize data2 types of Statistics1Descriptive Used to organize and summarize data2Inferential Used to interpret data and draw conclusionDescriptive Statistics Central TendenciesMedian Score that falls exactly in the centre of a distribution of scoresMean The arithmetic average of the scores divided by the total number of scoresMode Most frequent score in the distributionVariability How much the scores in a data set vary from each other and from the meanStandard Deviation Index of the amount of variability in a set of dataCorrelation Exists when 2 variables are related to each otherCorrelation coefficient Numerical index of the degree of relationship between 2 variablesIndicates1Direction Positive or Negative2How strongly 2 are relatedPositive Correlation 2 variables covary in the same direction
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