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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Learning This note includes the prof's lecture slides, and has accompanying notes typed up beside it. It very neat and compact, has highlights, stars and arrows relating lecture slides to related notes given in class.

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PSYC 1010
Vivienne Monty

Agenda Tuesday, November 09, 2010 6:03 AM If something is based on learning,it can be unlearned. ClassicalConditioning Tuesday, November 09, 2010 6:07 AM Model of learning Beercommercial for men: targets all the things that men want. They have been conditioned.Example of classical conditioning. i.e.bowl, assistant that brings the food, etc… Responding to neutral stimuli. UCS Tone No salivation Food (UCS) Salivation (UCR) Inevitably leads to salivation Tone + Food (CS) + (UCS) Salivation (UCR) Associated with the meat - conditioned Tone (CS) Salivation (CR) Conditioned Response has been learned! In order for you to acquire the new behavior, when should it be paired for the conditioning occur? (With the tone,it had to be established rightbefore the food). Simultaneously works too. Cannotbe established if the unconditioned stimulus comes after. Can respond to stimulus that is similar to the original How do you get rid of conditioned responses? -> Presentation of CS alone. Worst thing you can do when you are afraid of (i.e.stop bringing food after something is to run away. the tone.) Application Tuesday, November 09, 2010 6:08 AM Watson -> build on the work of Pavlov. Tried to see if babies could be conditioned to be afraid of furry objects. (no response - positive response).Conditioned Albert with the sound of a hammer banging against a steel bar behind him. (UCS) Paired the loud bang with a white rat over a few weeks. Associated white furry objects with the white rat + bar. Developed a real phobia. CS - Snow + CR - Conditioned fear response to snow UCS - Terror when buried by an avalanche Avoidance of snow -> negative reinforcementof avoidance behaviours by fear reduction Successful avoidance prevents exposure to CS and possible extinction of CR. -When you avoid something, you initially feel good - going from high anxiety to a sense of relief.(Being rewarded for avoiding things that we are afraid of -> creates new behaviour because it feels good). Negative reinforcement Rat learns to fear the light. Classical conditioning - shock paired with light. Operantconditioning -> rat learnsto run away, and to avoid that part of the cage. OperantConditioning,Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement Tuesday, November 09, 2010 6:08 AM -> Rewards and punishment -> You get praised/food/money -> You're going to keep repeating whatever is rewarded. -> With humans it's higherorder reinforcement. -> Looked at behaviour of animals. Taught pigeonsto play ping pong. O_o -> Produce complex behaviour that are usually associated with highermental processes. So Skinnersays to forget about those highermental states - behaviours are shaped by rewards and punishments. e.g.Anorexic woman: Primary -> Hungry -> doesn't eat - fulfillmentof basic needs -> finds it rewarding because she is losing Secondary weight. - Money,praise -> acquired reinforcement. If behaviour doesn't diminish, they haven't been punished. Non-aggressive means of controlling child behaviour. Physical punishmentleads to bad outcomes. Children who were physically punishment have bad tendenciesto use aggression in response to others.Physical punishment should be avoided altogether. It breedsmore negative consequencesthan goo
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