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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 and 3 This Lecture is all on the Research Methods. Lecture 2 and 3 are on the same chapter.

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Fall

Description
Tues. Sept. 23/10 Psychology Lecture 2 Methods of Research  There’s no one method of research that is superior because there are advantages and disadvantages to everyone and it depends on the situation of topic of research on which technique you will choose.  1) Survey Method: Consists of a set of questions used to determine people’s attitudes and beliefs o Advantages:  Cheap and Practical  Anonymous  You are able to reach a large population of participants  You are able to choose which groups of people you want to respond on the survey o Disadvantages:  No control over the environment  You don’t know how honest they are (pleasing the experimenter or an acceptable social way)  Only people interested in the topic would want to participate (may get a bias sample)  Interpretation of questions (Wording may be confusing)  Large sample  Pilot Study: A mini study to make sure that there are no problems or misinterpretations in the study (Instead of handing 2000 surveys hand out 20 to confirm it is clear and precise).  Population In Order to generalize from the SAMPLE to the POPULATION, the sample must be REPRESENTATIVE of the population. The Opposite of the representative is biased. Sample  The sample would be as a mini version of the population.  Random Sampling: Is one method of sampling where each person in the population has an equal chance of being chosen for the sample.  2) Naturalistic Observation: Used when you want to describe or measure peoples behaviour as they are behaving naturally in a natural setting. o Advantages:  No artificial behaviour because people do not know that they are being observed and documented o Disadvantages:  Subjects having a bad day and are not behaving the way they normally due  It’s hard to observe without disrupting the person being observed  Extreme lack of control over the situation  Observer/Experimenter Bias. (See what you want to see and automatically interpret that it is what you are looking for. Ex. Studying separation anxiety, adult leaves room, child about to cry and automatically interpreting that it is anxiety when it is just gas).  Ethical issues  Time consuming  Can’t infer causation (Just because you are observing a behaviour it does not mean that you are able to know what caused the actual behaviour)  Must be able to make sure the subject does not know that they are being observed and documented  Researcher should minimize subject reactivity (when they know they are being observed and is not acting naturally)  They should use unobtrusive measures (Observing subject without them being aware). o One way mirror o Hidden camera o Blend in with subject  Unobtrusive measures may be against ethical principles.  Before a researcher can conduct an experimenter you must have it approved by the ethics committee.  Although it’s true about being against ethics, if it is in a public setting where the behaviour would happen whether being watched or not, it is fine.  Also can be a participant observer. o Acting a part of a group (Pretend to be a gang member when observing gang behaviour) o Being undercover o May be acting a certain way that is making them behave in a certain way  Expectation can result in seeing certain things only because you are expecting it to happen.  Inter observer reliability is having two or more observers and corresponding the observations. If they are similar than what you have observed is right and if they are different then something is wrong.  3) Experimental Method: o Advantages  Experimenter has control over the situation  *You can infer a cause and effect relationship*  The word variable comes from the word “to vary” which means “to change” o The two variables that are extremely important in experiments:  The independent variable: The variable that the experimenter changes or manipulates to see if it has an effect on a behaviour.  The dependent variable: The behaviour that is measured to see if the independent variable had an effect.  The independent variable would be known as the cause and the dependent variable would be known as the effect. You want to find out what has caused the effect.  Ex. An experiment of male’s memory. Two groups ages 20-25 and 40 -45. Both groups received a list of 20 words and the group was asked to repeat the 20 word list to test how their memory is. The independent variable is age because the two groups are varied in different age. The dependent variable is memory because it is what is being measured in the experiment.  Interaction Effect: The effect of one independent variable depends on the effect of another.  Control Group: A group that is used as a standard for comparison. It gets the “0” amount of the independent variable. The control and experimental groups must be equivalent in every way except for the independent variable.  Alcohol Study: 0oz, 2oz, 4oz. o Not tested at the same time, is a one on one testing o * Could be on Test* One scenario is that the group that has 0oz doesn’t get any glass at all and one group that has 0oz of alcohol thinks that they are getting alcohol by receiving a glass of something and drops of alcohol on the tip of the glass by thinking they are having alcohol even though they are not. o Which scenario would be best?  The second scenario would be best because one thing that is very important is that your control group and experimental group should be equal every way except for the alcohol. Because the person that doesn’t get any drink at all and knows it is a alcohol test has an expectation to do great on the test on memory because they know they are sober where as the group that doesn’t know there is no alcohol in the glass will expect to drink alcohol and begin to expect being drunk and it will impair their memory and act drunk.  They are equal to expectation so expectation is no longer a problem.  This is a placebo control group a special type of control group that’s used to control for subjects expectations. If the control group is given a placebo it’s assumed that all groups are equal in terms of expectation. Any behavioural differences are due to the actual independent variable (ex. Alcohol)  A placebo is something that you give someone that has nothing in it and you automatically think that it has a effect on you because of your expectation. It can have a cause psychological and/or physiological. Sept. 29/10 Psychology Lecture 3 Lecture 2 …Continued  Cofounding Variable: A variable that interferes with the results of a study. It aff
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