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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Learning This Lecture went on for 2 and a half weeks. It is all on the chapter of learning.


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Lecture
5

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Oct. 20/10
Psychology Lecture 5
Chapter 6: Learning
Behavioural Approach
Interested in looking at OVERT (observable) behaviours and determining their antecedents
(before) consequences (what might have triggered the behaviour and what is the
consequence (can be good or bad) of that behaviour?
Learning
Learning is a relatively durable change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience or
practice - (meaning if you have learnt something you were not able to do before)
Durable meaning it is not permanent because although you have learnt something your memory
plays a factor and the information may fade away.
Learning must result from practice and experience
Learning vs. Performance
o A test is able to indicate whether you have learned material or not my noting how you
have performed on a test.
o Sometimes performance doesn’t note how much you have learned because it can be
based on motivation or other factors.
o Learning is not synonymies with performance.
Lecture 5 Continued Oct. 27/10
Types of Learning (Conditioning)
1) Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
2) Operant or Instrumental (Skinner)
3) Observational
Learning is an association between two different things (events)
When exposed to one of the things you usually automatically associate it with the other thing

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Dog made
association
between
food and
bell
On
Off
On
Off
US
The CS and US are started
and ended at the exact same
time
Time
The longer the gap the
less and less the
condition is going to
be. The dog will be
loose the association
between the bell and
the food
Classical Conditioning
Discovered by Ian Pavlov
The experiment with the dog where he collected the saliva being produced by the dog when
seeing food
The dog started salivating when hearing the sound of a bell (the connection between the bell
and the food)
He found this by chance
A bell was going off while there was a presentation with food and the dog automatically
associated the food with the bell.
Unconditioned Response (UR): a response that is automatic or reflexive and that requires no
prior learning. Its involuntary
It’s not learned or doesn’t have to learned, its automatic
The Unconditioned Response will always be accompanied by and Unconditioned Stimulus (US) is
a stimulus that proceeds and elicits (or triggers) the unconditioned response.
A Conditioned Response (CR) is a response elicited by a Conditioned Stimulus and its identical to
the Unconditioned Response
The Conditioned Stimulus (CS) is any stimulus that is paired with the Unconditioned Stimulus
and eventually elicits a Conditioned Response.
Diagram of Classical Conditioning (Pavlov Example)
(US)Food Salvation (UR)
Bell and Food Will be the Same
(CS)Bell Salvation (CR)
Delay Conditioning CS
US
Simultaneous CS
Conditioning
Trace CS
Conditioning
(Trace Conditioning is first conditioned stimulus is on for a while and then terminated
before the unconditioned stimulus is produced.)

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Time
The complete opposite of Delay
Conditioning. The food is
brought first and then the bell.
80,000hr
40,000hr
10,000hr
Backward CS
Conditioning
Phobias
The case of little Albert
Child in a high chair playing with a mouse, gong being banged behind the high chair as child
playing with mouse. Child scared of mouse thinking the loud noise of a gong will happen if near
the mouse.
(US) Gong Fear (UR)
Mouse and gong
(CS) Mouse Fear (CR)
Higher-Order Conditioning
When a well-established Conditioned Stimulus1 starts acting as though it were and Unconditioned
Stimulus and is able to bring the Conditioned Response under the control of a Conditioned Stimulus1.
Adding another Conditioned Stimulus in order to get the same Conditioned Response.
(US) Food Salvation (UR)
Bell and Food
(CS1) Bell Salvation (CR)
Light and Bell
(CS2) Light Salvation (CR)
Stimulus Generalization
When a conditioned response occurs in response to other stimuli that are similar to the original
conditioned stimulus used in training. The greater the similarity, the more likely the generalization.
Example:
(US) Food Salvation (UR)
60,000hr Bell and Food
(CS) 60,00hr Bell Salvation (CR)
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