PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Naturalistic Observation, Confounding, Sampling Bias
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Methods of Research
Consists of a set of written questions that are used to determine people’s attitudes, beliefs or
Really efficient, and relatively cheap.
Not as accurate
Can be interpreted differently by people
In order to generalize from the sample to a population, the sample must be representative of the
population. (Must be a “mini-version”).
Random Sampling: Where each person in the population has an equal chance of being chosen for the
Use this when you’re interested in describing or measuring people’s behaviour when they are
People act naturally
Time and money consuming
You can only observe
Might behave unnaturally if realizing you’re being watched
Might interpret things
In naturalistic observation, minimize subject reactivity is to use unobtrusive measures or to have
a participant observer. Researchers have expectations, and that might affect how they interpret
information. As a researcher you must prevent this from happening (inter-observer reliability).
Subject: participant in a study
Pilot Study: a smaller, trial study
Biased sample: opposite of a
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