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PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Contiguity

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

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Behavioural Approach
Behaviour is determined by environmental factors.
Interested in overt (observable) behaviour
This approach tries to identify antecedents and consequences of behaviour
3 Types of Learning:
1. Classical Conditioning
2. Operant or Instrumental Conditioning
3. Observation Learning
Learning: A relatively durable change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience.
Conditioning: Is the learning of associations between 2 things on 2 events
Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
1. Unconditioned Response (UR):
- A response that is automatic or reflexive and requires no prior learning.
- The response is involuntary
2. Unconditioned Stimulus (US):
- A stimulus that precedes and elicits (triggers) the unconditional response
3. Conditioned Stimulus (CS):
- Any stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus that eventually elicits a
response identical to the unconditioned response.
4. Conditioned response (CR)
- The response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus and it’s identical to the
unconditioned response.
Pavlov’s experiment:
Food (US) Salivation (UR)
Bell + Food
Bell (CS) Salivation (CR)
Pairing of the Unconditional Stimulus & Conditional Stimulus
Delay Conditioning

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Simultaneous Conditioning
Trace Conditioning
Backward Conditioning
Having unreasonable fear of a stimulus.
People more likely to develop phobias to things than others because of evolution.
From evolutionary point of view: adaptive to develop fears -> by staying away from dangerous
things like snakes and heights it is less likely to lose life to it therefore will survive to reproduce.
Individual differences cause one person to develop phobia to something someone else would
Higher-Order Conditioning
Is when a well-established CS1 starts acting though as it were an US, and is able to bring the CR
under the control of a new CS2.
Stimulus Generalization
Is when a conditioned response occurs in response to other stimuli that are similar to the
original conditioned stimulus used in training. The greater the similarity, the more likely the
Stimulus Discrimination
Is when a conditional response is elicited only in response to a conditional stimulus that was
paired with the unconditioned stimulus during training.
When the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus over a
period of time, the conditioned stimulus will elicit a conditioned response that gradually
weakens and disappears.
Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response when exposed to the conditioned
stimulus following a period of non-exposure.
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