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Lecture

Behavioural Approach Lecture covering the behavioural approach to psychology. Topics covered include: classical conditioning (Pavlov), the Garcia effect, and operant conditioning (Skinner). Includes illustrations.

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Fall

Description
Behavioural Approach  Behaviour is determined by environmental factors.  Interested in overt (observable) behaviour  This approach tries to identify antecedents and consequences of behaviour 3 Types of Learning: 1. Classical Conditioning 2. Operant or Instrumental Conditioning 3. Observation Learning Learning: A relatively durable change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice or experience. Conditioning: Is the learning of associations between 2 things on 2 events Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) 1. Unconditioned Response (UR): - A response that is automatic or reflexive and requires no prior learning. - The response is involuntary 2. Unconditioned Stimulus (US): - A stimulus that precedes and elicits (triggers) the unconditional response 3. Conditioned Stimulus (CS): - Any stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus that eventually elicits a response identical to the unconditioned response. 4. Conditioned response (CR) - The response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus and it’s identical to the unconditioned response. Pavlov’s experiment: Food (US)  Salivation (UR) Bell + Food Bell (CS)  Salivation (CR) Pairing of the Unconditional Stimulus & Conditional Stimulus Delay Conditioning CS US Simultaneous Conditioning CS US Trace Conditioning CS US Backward Conditioning CS US Phobias  Having unreasonable fear of a stimulus.  People more likely to develop phobias to things than others because of evolution.  From evolutionary point of view: adaptive to develop fears -> by staying away from dangerous things like snakes and heights it is less likely to lose life to it therefore will survive to reproduce.  Individual differences cause one person to develop phobia to something someone else would not. Higher-Order Conditioning Is when a well-established CS1 starts acting though as it were an US, and is able to bring the CR under the control of a new CS2. Stimulus Generalization  Is when a conditioned response occurs in response to other stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimulus used in training. The greater the similarity, the more likely the generalization. Stimulus Discrimination  Is when a conditional response is elicited only in response to a conditional stimulus that was paired with the unconditioned stimulus during training. Extinction  When the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus over a period of time, the conditioned stimulus will elicit a conditioned response that gradually weakens and disappears. Spontaneous Recovery  The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response when exposed to the conditioned stimulus following a period of non-exposure. Contiguity When 2 stimuli or events occur close together they tend to become associated. (US) X-ray  Nausea (UR) Solution + 7 hrs interval + X-ray (CS) Solution  Nausea (CR) Prepared Learning: Garcia Effect First Experiment: (US) X-ray  Nausea (UR) Water/light/noise + x-ray Water nausea (CR) Light no response Noise no response Second Experiment: (US) Shock  Fear (UR) Water/light/noise + Shock Water  no resp
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