Memory Lecture covering memory. Topics include: cognitive vs. behaviouristic approach, information processing approach to memory, working memory model, short term memory, and long term memory. Some diagrams included.
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Interested in overt behaviour.
Stresses the Stimulus-Response relationship.
Stresses the S-O-R relationship
Cognitions occur between the stimulus and response. These cognitions are deliberations, such
as predictions, expectations, interpretations, and evaluations, which can be based on
Two main assumptions:
1. Internal processes are as important are as important as external ones.
2. Cognitive processes are organized.
Insight: The sudden understanding of how to solve a problem.
Information Processing Approach to Memory
Input processing output
Stimulus memory system recall/retrieval
Sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a short period of time.
The sensation of the stimulus lingers briefly after the stimulus is removed. The information
decays if it doesn’t become part of short term memory.
You need to pay attention in order for it to be a stimulus. Pattern recognition gives meaning to
stimuli and symbols.
Short Term Memory
Contains information that we are consciously aware of or “working on”.
Can hold information for 15 – 20 seconds.
Has a limited capacity and can hold 7 ± 2 pieces of information (memory span).
Works on a “buffer system”.
Information is displaced if it doesn’t become part of long term memory.
Chunk: a meaningful unit of information.
Working Memory Model
Executive Control: Controls how will divide attention and switch to different tasks.
Phonological Rehearsal Loop: Repeat it until can put info away.
Visuospatial Sketch Pad: Mentally manipulate visual images.
Episodic Buffer: Allows other components to be integrated and puts them together so they can work
Long Term Memorization Techniques
Maintenance Rehearsal: Repetition of information. Good for keeping information from being displaced
from short term memory. The longer it stays in memory, the greater the chance to remember
Elaborative Rehearsal: What is needed to push information from STM to LTM. Elaborate upon to-be-
remembered information. Create associations.
Mnemonic: Memory aid.
High-imagery Vs Low-imagery words
High Imagery: Concrete words. Dual-codes: memory & visual image
Low Imagery: Abstract words. Single code/meaning.
Long Term Memory
Information stored indefinitely or permanently
Serial Position Effect
Recency Effect: Words in short term memory. Last few words in list more recalled.
Primacy Effect: Effects in long term memory. First words in list more recalled
Serial Recall Task: Recalling in same order as presented
Free Recall Task: Recalling in random order
Storage in Long Term Memory
Memory for skills, actions, or “how to do things”
Implicit Memory: Incidental memory.
Memory for information or facts.
Two types of declarative memory:
- Semantic Memory: Involves general information about rules and things that we have “over
- Episodic Memory: Memory for specific events or episodes. These are usually unique events
rather than repeated ones.
Explicit Memory: You deliberately try to recall.
Inability to Recall from Long Term Memory
1. Pseudoforgetting; didn’t try to memorize it in the first place.
2. Information was lost in the memory system; didn’t make it into long term memory.
3. The information may be available in long term memory, but it’s not accessible.
Why is information not accessible?
1. Context Dependent Forgetting or Encoding-Specificity Principle
- Not being able to recall because the cues used for retrieving information are different from
those used at encoding.
- You are using an inappropriate search strategy.
2. State-Dependent Forgetting
- This happens when one’s physical or mental state or mood is different at encoding and
- Competition from other sources.
- Forgetting in long term memory seems to be more influenced by the amount, complexity,
and type of information in the retention interval than by decay.
- Retroactive Interference: Newly acquired information interferes with the recall of
previously learned information.
- Proactive Interference: Older information interferes with the recall of newer information.
Cognitions occur between the stimulus and response. These cognitions are deliberations, such as predictions, expectations, interpretations, and evaluations, which can be based on experience. Internal processes are as important are as important as external ones: cognitive processes are organized. Insight: the sudden understanding of how to solve a problem. Sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a short period of time. The sensation of the stimulus lingers briefly after the stimulus is removed. The information decays if it doesn"t become part of short term memory. You need to pay attention in order for it to be a stimulus. Pattern recognition gives meaning to stimuli and symbols. Contains information that we are consciously aware of or working on . Can hold information for 15 20 seconds. Has a limited capacity and can hold 7 2 pieces of information (memory span). Information is displaced if it doesn"t become part of long term memory.