Components of motivation: drive or arousal, goal-directed behaviour. Theories of motivation: freud"s notion of life/death instincts, sociobiological view: most of our behaviours are motivated towards ensuring the future survival of our genes. Proposes that biological needs or deficiencies increase our level of arousal or drive. All of our behaviour is geared towards satisfying this biological need, thus, reducing this drive to a. Incentives: anticipation of reward: optimal level of arousal theory (hebb) When arousal is too low or too high, we try to attain an optimal level. E = d * h (probability of a specific response) = drive * habit strength. What motivates us to engage in risky/dangerous behaviour: zuckerman"s sensation-seeking theory. There is a strong biological predisposition to high or low sensation-seeking: opponent process theory * The nervous system has a tendency to counteract any deviation from normalcy. If there is too much of a swing to one pole of emotions, the opponent process kicks in.