PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Opponent Process, Disinhibition, Thalamus
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Motivation & Emotion
Components of Motivation:
1. Drive or arousal
2. Goal-directed behaviour
Theories of Motivation
1. Freud’s notion of life/death instincts
2. Sociobiological view: Most of our behaviours are motivated towards ensuring the future survival
of our genes.
3. Instinct theories
4. Hulls Drive-Reduction Theory
- Proposes that biological needs or deficiencies increase our level of arousal or drive. All of
our behaviour is geared towards satisfying this biological need, thus, reducing this drive to a
- Incentives: Anticipation of reward.
5. Optimal level of Arousal Theory (Hebb)
- When arousal is too low or too high, we try to attain an “optimal” level.
How external stimuli “pull” us.
How internal states “push” us.
E = D * H
(Probability of a specific response) = Drive * Habit Strength
What motivates us to engage in risky/dangerous behaviour?
1. Zuckerman’s Sensation-Seeking Theory
- There is a strong biological predisposition to high or low sensation-seeking
2. Opponent Process Theory *
- The nervous system has a tendency to counteract any deviation from normalcy. If there is
too much of a swing to one pole of emotions, the opponent process kicks in. In other words
a negative emotion will trigger an opposite positive emotion and vice-versa.