PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Intellectual Disability, Diagnostic And Statistical Manual Of Mental Disorders, Personality Disorder
Mental illnesses should be treated like physical illnesses.
4 Major Criteria for Defining Abnormal Behaviour
1. Statistical Frequency
2. Deviation from Social Norms
3. Maladaptive behaviour is considered abnormal
4. Psychological distress
Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
The process of matching people’s symptoms to pre-established categories of psychological disorders
(DSM). It’s the basis for selecting therapy and making a prognosis.
Multiaxial System of Diagnosing
Axis I – Used to record the disorder from the DSM
Axis II – Used to record personality disorders and mental retardation
Axis III – Used to record medical disorders.
Axis IV – Estimates the severity of stressful life events.
Axis V – Estimates the highest level of adaptive functioning in social, occupational, and leisure activities.
Problems with Diagnosing
Can “colour one’s perceptions”
It’s clear we cannot distinguish psychological disorders in institutions. People who work in mental
hospital expect to see illness, and therefore see it.
Involve feelings of distress but don’t lead to a distortion of reality.
1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (free-floating anxiety).
2. Phobic Disorders
3. Panic Disorder / Agoraphobia
4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
a) Obsessions: recurrent thought that involuntarily intrudes
b) Compulsions: Ritualistic act
Fall somewhere between psychological and medical disorders.
Refers to physical symptoms that have no physiological basis.
Not to be confused with psychosomatic disorders.
a) Conversion Disorder (hysteria)
b) Hypochondriasis: Minor physical illness that’s interpreted as something serious by the person.
a) Dissociative Amnesia
b) Dissociative Identity Disorder
1. Major Depressive Disorder
2. Bipolar Disorder (manic-depressive)
- Cyclothymic Disorder