PSYC 1010 Lecture Notes - Operant Conditioning, Psychotherapy, Thematic Apperception Test
Treatment of Psychological Disorders
Therapies are classified into 3 categories:
1. Insight therapies (“talking” therapies).
2. Behaviour Therapy – any therapy that’s based on learning principles.
3. Biomedical Therapies
1. Maladaptive behaviours are acquired through “faulty” learning and you can “unlearn” these
behaviours with behaviour therapy.
2. You don’t need to uncover the cause for the disorder.
Systematic Desensitization – (Wolpe, 1958)
1. Set up an anxiety hierarchy.
2. Train the patient in deep relaxation techniques.
3. Imagine the items in the hierarchy while relaxed.
4. “In vivo” situation
Learning Principles that make Systematic Desensitization Effective
1. Counterconditioning – substituting anxiety with relaxation
2. Extinction – weakens anxiety response, and eventually replaces it with relaxation
Implosion Therapy (imagine) & Flooding (in vivo)
Relaxation is not used.
Based on extinction only.
Induce anxiety and prevent the client from avoiding the phobic stimulus.
Based on operant conditioning.
A) Contingency Management
Involves the presentation and withdrawal of positive stimulus contingent upon the
1. Collect baseline data
2. Set a realistic goal
3. Choose effective reinforcers
4. Contingency contracting
5. Compare “Before” and “After” data
B) Token Economy System
Cognitive Type Therapy
It attempts to alter a person’s feelings and behaviours by first changing their maladaptive beliefs
Rational-Emotive Therapy (RET)
Based on the ABC Model.
Event Belief Cognition Consequences, emotions, and behaviours.
1. Symptoms can only be eliminated if you uncover the original cause.
2. The patient is helped to gain insight and to re-experience repressed emotions
A) Manifest Content
Transference – Occurs when the patient makes the analyst the object of his emotional
responses. The patient acts towards the analyst the way they act towards significant others in
Emphasizes “working through”, (the development of new emotions and behaviours following
A) Rorschach Inkblot Test
B) Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)