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Pavlov Lecture on Pavlov and his Method

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

PSYCH1010 11.11.2010 Pavlov - Contiguit when 2 stimuli occur close together in time, they become associated. - Pavlov believed 2 things about contiguity o For Contiguity to occur the US and CS must be contiguous o If ANY US + CS are paired conditioning will occur - (US) X-ray  Nausea (UR) - (CS) Solution  Nausea (CR) - Garcia Effect: o (US) Xray  Nausea (UR) o (CS) Water/lightness + Xray  Water  nausea (CR)  Light  X  Noise  X o (US) Shock  Fear (UR)  Water/Light/noise + Shock  Water  X  Light  Fear (CR)  Noise  Fear (CR) Operant Conditioning (Skinner) - Learning through consequences o 3 Elements  Stimulus  Voluntary Response  Consequences  Positive reinforce  Negative reinforce  Positive punishment  Negative Punishment 2 o Positive Reinforce (Sr )  When something pleasant is added to the situation, and this increases the probability of the response reoccur2ing.  Factors that influence the effectiveness of the Sr  One Factor is the Magnitude of the Sr . 2.  Second factor2is the immediacy of the Sr  Scheduling of Sr  4 Main types of ratio and interval schedules. These are categories according to whether the criterion for reinforcing a response is the passage of time or the number of previous responses, and whether this criteria is fixed or v
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