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Lecture

November 18th lecture These notes have everything in them. They are very thorough and are really useful for people who missed class because pretty much every word she said is in these notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Semester
Fall

Description
November 18, 2010 Any type of adding or removing something increase the probability of the response (both Sr+, adding something pleasant, and Sr-, removing something unpleasant). Positive punishment is when you add something unpleasance, and negative punishment is when you remove something pleasant (these 2 both decrease the probability of the response reoccurring). Being “grounded” is like a teenager’s work for “time out”: really negative punishment; negative reinforcement and removing all pleasurable things. Is punishment effective? Does it work? We are restricted to the degree at which we are allowed to punish during experiments and research. Some considerations: 1. Punishment, ideally, should be immediate. A reinforce is more effective if done immediately. We, as human beings, can use language to make a point. 2. Punishment should be consistent: whenever that thing happens, you need to punish the child every time they do it. If you do it only some of the time, the act will continue because they see that they sometimes can get away with it. They also won’t know what exactly what is expected of them. 3. Punishment can’t be too hard because then they will start fearing the punisher. 4. Parents are role models. If you tell a child not to hit and it was very wrong that they did and then you hit him as a punishment, the reason the child is imitating you as it is. Alternatives to punishment: - Skinner believed that there was never need to punish. Reinforce the opposite behaviour, but you don’t need to punish them to get them to do or not to do something. If you simply reinforce him against the desirable alternative to what you want and be overly enthusiastic when they do the right thing, they will get the point. Reinforce an acceptable alternative behaviour. - Ignore the unwanted or undesirable behaviour Chapter 16: Social Behaviour Social psychology: looking at people’s behaviour when they are in a social setting. 2 subsections: 1. Social cognition: the study of the way we perceive and evaluate others. Example: how we form prejudice, love, personal attraction, personal attributes, etc. 2. Social influence: the way people influence each other’s behaviours, decisions, etc. MIlgrim (1963)- social psychologist. He was baffled how people could’ve followed Hitler during his command. Is it possible to come up with factors that influence why people listen to each other. His studis experimented with the effects of punishment on learning. (LOOK UP STUDY ON TEACHER AND ELECTRIC SHOCK) The purpose whas to see how many subjects posing as teachers could administer 450 volts of electricity (even though they really weren’t, but they didn’t know that) to learners who got questions wrong. The teacher wasn’t actually delivering the voltage but he thought that they were when the learner got hte answer wrong. The teachers were told by the scientists that the shock would be a bit painful, but it wouldn’t actually hurt them. They asked psychiatrists how many people would be able to deliver the full voltage and their prediction: less than 1% would be able to. Types of condtions: (a) Remote condition: the teacher and the learner were in 2 separate rooms, and the teacher never heard the voice of the person, but when more voltage was added, the student would pound on the wall... 65% of the teachers were obedient until 450 volts. (b) Voice feedback: the teacher would hear the student’s voice saying “stop! I have a heart condition!” but 62.5% of them still continued! (c) Proximity: the teacher and the student were sitting side by side... 40% continued! (d) Touch proximity: the teacher has to grab the learner’s arm and place it on the electricity machine... 30% (e) No contact whatsoever: 100% of teachers were obedient Experimenter proximity: what if the experimenter left the room? The level of obedience dropped significantly, from 65%-22% Defying the experiments: there is another person there (a co-teacher) who is in on the study. When the teacher would get to 150 volts, the co-teacher would get up and leave, saying that he was done. That decreased the level of obedience from 65%-10%. Biologically, we have that tendency to obey. We’re socialized to follow commands because we are always told what to do! he felt that there are definitely factors that lead a person to be obedient or not, as seen with this study. Factors which influence willingness to obey (Milgrim): - Social norms: an unwritten rule or law of society; certain expectation of society - Surveillance: when someone isnt being watched so much, they are more likely to obey - Buffers: the fewer the buffer (the more direct the experience/contact), the less likely obedience will occur - Responsibility: if the teacher can be put in a situation where he doesn’t feel responsible for the wellbeing
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