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Lecture

Motivation and Emotion

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Gerry Goldberg
Semester
Winter

Description
Motivation and Emotion rd Pages 476-479: Themes and Variations 3 Canadian Edition Theories of Emotion James- Lange Theory: emotion is triggered by a physiological change. Cannon Bard Theory: no physiological change for each emotion. Cannon is famous for fight or flight response. Role of Hormones: adrenaline and norepinephrine High levels of adrenaline and norepinephrine for every day challenges. Fight: no norepinephrine. Only adrenaline. Two factor theory of Emotion: Shachter and Singer (1962) - Students called in for a memory test. Checking impact of drug on memory. - Epinephrine given to half. Placebo given to other half. - When given epinephrine, most interpreted their internal feelings from the situation. The confederate’s apparent reaction. - Not so with the placebo. No change with placebo to happy or sad reaction. - People with epinephrine felt euphoric or anxious. - 2 things going on. First, Some sort of physiological change. Second, seek and mirror other’s emotions. Situational factors. - Only occurred when misinformed. Did not occur when informed of the true nature of the study. - Not first to do this. - To make a woman fall in love with you. Take her to the coliseum. When she gets shocked, stick your face in front of her. - Bridge experiment: independent variable: safe or unsafe bridge. Dependant variable: the woman giver her number. - We assume our reaction is contributed to one source. Application of the 2 factor theory: - Becker: a lot of people ending up in the E.R because of LSD. Drug psychosis following the use of LSD. Looked at the marijuana use. Early days of the 20 century, a lot of people ended up in the E.R. More people started smoking marijuana over the years. Fewer people ended up in the E.R. Uses 2- factor theory to explain it. Social Basis for the Drug – Induced Experience: - New experiences. Novices taking drugs. - Errors in action - Don’t do as well when stoned. - Anxiety in old culture. “Drugs cause insanity” or “Crystallized underlying disorder”. - Anxiety referred to as drug psychosis. - Drug culture: interpret experiences in response to information taken in. Normalizes the experience. - A series of stages following a traumatic experience. - Normalizing reaction does not cause anxiety. Pages 467-475 The Cognitive Component: - Highly personal and subjective. - Psychologists rely on verbal reports. - People’s cognitive appraisals of events in their lives are key determinants and aspects of the evolutionary experience. (evaluative aspect for example pleasant, unpleasant or mixed) - Modern focus on positive emotions and resilience. - Emotional responses are involuntary. - Main focus of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (Is the cup half full or halfway empty?) or “Do you see the stressor as a threat or a challenge?” “Normalization”. (Do you see your reaction to a traumatic event as a sign of personal weakness or a normal reaction to an abnormal event?). - Psychologists use this technique to help people with depression, disorders and etc. Physiological Component: - Autonomic Nervous System - Emotions are accompanied by visceral arousal? “No energy to do anything” What about emotions of comfort and peacefulness or “the blahs”? - Fight or flight response, which can be measured. - Measured by Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). Part of lie detector test (measures autonomic changes). Measures amount of perspiration so electricity can flow faster. Said to be 85-90% accurate but it is hotly disputed. - Detector of lying is voice. When people lie, there is a tiny difference in pitch as it goes higher. Affective Neuroscience (Neuroscience of emotions): - Emotion depends on activity in a constellation of interacting brain centres. Info is sent to thalamus and the thalamus sends information to the cortex but also sends information to the amgydala. - Prefrontal cortex seems to process the meaning. Behavioural Component: - Overt expressions such as “body language” or “nonverbal behaviour” - Cognitive appraisal: Neurons react to other people’s emotions. - Six basic emotions: anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness and surprise. - Facial – feedback hypothesis asserts that facial muscles send signals to th
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