Class Notes (835,006)
Canada (508,865)
York University (35,167)
Psychology (4,108)
PSYC 1010 (1,345)

Motivation and Emotion

5 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 1010
Gerry Goldberg

Motivation and Emotion rd Pages 476-479: Themes and Variations 3 Canadian Edition Theories of Emotion James- Lange Theory: emotion is triggered by a physiological change. Cannon Bard Theory: no physiological change for each emotion. Cannon is famous for fight or flight response. Role of Hormones: adrenaline and norepinephrine High levels of adrenaline and norepinephrine for every day challenges. Fight: no norepinephrine. Only adrenaline. Two factor theory of Emotion: Shachter and Singer (1962) - Students called in for a memory test. Checking impact of drug on memory. - Epinephrine given to half. Placebo given to other half. - When given epinephrine, most interpreted their internal feelings from the situation. The confederate’s apparent reaction. - Not so with the placebo. No change with placebo to happy or sad reaction. - People with epinephrine felt euphoric or anxious. - 2 things going on. First, Some sort of physiological change. Second, seek and mirror other’s emotions. Situational factors. - Only occurred when misinformed. Did not occur when informed of the true nature of the study. - Not first to do this. - To make a woman fall in love with you. Take her to the coliseum. When she gets shocked, stick your face in front of her. - Bridge experiment: independent variable: safe or unsafe bridge. Dependant variable: the woman giver her number. - We assume our reaction is contributed to one source. Application of the 2 factor theory: - Becker: a lot of people ending up in the E.R because of LSD. Drug psychosis following the use of LSD. Looked at the marijuana use. Early days of the 20 century, a lot of people ended up in the E.R. More people started smoking marijuana over the years. Fewer people ended up in the E.R. Uses 2- factor theory to explain it. Social Basis for the Drug – Induced Experience: - New experiences. Novices taking drugs. - Errors in action - Don’t do as well when stoned. - Anxiety in old culture. “Drugs cause insanity” or “Crystallized underlying disorder”. - Anxiety referred to as drug psychosis. - Drug culture: interpret experiences in response to information taken in. Normalizes the experience. - A series of stages following a traumatic experience. - Normalizing reaction does not cause anxiety. Pages 467-475 The Cognitive Component: - Highly personal and subjective. - Psychologists rely on verbal reports. - People’s cognitive appraisals of events in their lives are key determinants and aspects of the evolutionary experience. (evaluative aspect for example pleasant, unpleasant or mixed) - Modern focus on positive emotions and resilience. - Emotional responses are involuntary. - Main focus of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (Is the cup half full or halfway empty?) or “Do you see the stressor as a threat or a challenge?” “Normalization”. (Do you see your reaction to a traumatic event as a sign of personal weakness or a normal reaction to an abnormal event?). - Psychologists use this technique to help people with depression, disorders and etc. Physiological Component: - Autonomic Nervous System - Emotions are accompanied by visceral arousal? “No energy to do anything” What about emotions of comfort and peacefulness or “the blahs”? - Fight or flight response, which can be measured. - Measured by Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). Part of lie detector test (measures autonomic changes). Measures amount of perspiration so electricity can flow faster. Said to be 85-90% accurate but it is hotly disputed. - Detector of lying is voice. When people lie, there is a tiny difference in pitch as it goes higher. Affective Neuroscience (Neuroscience of emotions): - Emotion depends on activity in a constellation of interacting brain centres. Info is sent to thalamus and the thalamus sends information to the cortex but also sends information to the amgydala. - Prefrontal cortex seems to process the meaning. Behavioural Component: - Overt expressions such as “body language” or “nonverbal behaviour” - Cognitive appraisal: Neurons react to other people’s emotions. - Six basic emotions: anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness and surprise. - Facial – feedback hypothesis asserts that facial muscles send signals to th
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.