Motivation and Emotion
Pages 476-479: Themes and Variations 3 Canadian Edition
Theories of Emotion
James- Lange Theory: emotion is triggered by a physiological change.
Cannon Bard Theory: no physiological change for each emotion. Cannon is famous for fight or flight
Role of Hormones: adrenaline and norepinephrine
High levels of adrenaline and norepinephrine for every day challenges.
Fight: no norepinephrine. Only adrenaline.
Two factor theory of Emotion: Shachter and Singer (1962)
- Students called in for a memory test. Checking impact of drug on memory.
- Epinephrine given to half. Placebo given to other half.
- When given epinephrine, most interpreted their internal feelings from the situation. The
confederate’s apparent reaction.
- Not so with the placebo. No change with placebo to happy or sad reaction.
- People with epinephrine felt euphoric or anxious.
- 2 things going on. First, Some sort of physiological change. Second, seek and mirror other’s
emotions. Situational factors.
- Only occurred when misinformed. Did not occur when informed of the true nature of the study.
- Not first to do this.
- To make a woman fall in love with you. Take her to the coliseum. When she gets shocked, stick
your face in front of her.
- Bridge experiment: independent variable: safe or unsafe bridge. Dependant variable: the
woman giver her number.
- We assume our reaction is contributed to one source.
Application of the 2 factor theory:
- Becker: a lot of people ending up in the E.R because of LSD. Drug psychosis following the use of
LSD. Looked at the marijuana use. Early days of the 20 century, a lot of people ended up in the
E.R. More people started smoking marijuana over the years. Fewer people ended up in the E.R.
Uses 2- factor theory to explain it.
Social Basis for the Drug – Induced Experience:
- New experiences. Novices taking drugs.
- Errors in action - Don’t do as well when stoned.
- Anxiety in old culture. “Drugs cause insanity” or “Crystallized underlying disorder”.
- Anxiety referred to as drug psychosis.
- Drug culture: interpret experiences in response to information taken in. Normalizes the
- A series of stages following a traumatic experience.
- Normalizing reaction does not cause anxiety.
The Cognitive Component:
- Highly personal and subjective.
- Psychologists rely on verbal reports.
- People’s cognitive appraisals of events in their lives are key determinants and aspects of the
evolutionary experience. (evaluative aspect for example pleasant, unpleasant or mixed)
- Modern focus on positive emotions and resilience.
- Emotional responses are involuntary.
- Main focus of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (Is the cup half full or halfway empty?) or “Do you
see the stressor as a threat or a challenge?” “Normalization”. (Do you see your reaction to a
traumatic event as a sign of personal weakness or a normal reaction to an abnormal event?).
- Psychologists use this technique to help people with depression, disorders and etc.
- Autonomic Nervous System
- Emotions are accompanied by visceral arousal? “No energy to do anything” What about
emotions of comfort and peacefulness or “the blahs”?
- Fight or flight response, which can be measured.
- Measured by Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). Part of lie detector test (measures autonomic
changes). Measures amount of perspiration so electricity can flow faster. Said to be 85-90%
accurate but it is hotly disputed.
- Detector of lying is voice. When people lie, there is a tiny difference in pitch as it goes higher.
Affective Neuroscience (Neuroscience of emotions):
- Emotion depends on activity in a constellation of interacting brain centres. Info is sent to
thalamus and the thalamus sends information to the cortex but also sends information to the
- Prefrontal cortex seems to process the meaning.
- Overt expressions such as “body language” or “nonverbal behaviour”
- Cognitive appraisal: Neurons react to other people’s emotions. - Six basic emotions: anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness and surprise.
- Facial – feedback hypothesis asserts that facial muscles send signals to th