Chapter 7 (Memory) and Chapter 10 (Emotion & Motivation) A detailed account of these 2 chapters that are bound to help you study more effectively!
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January 13 2011
Chapter 7 (Continued Lecture)
Storage in LTM
It’s believed that in long term memory, once it makes it there, its stored in different places, depending
on what type of information is being stored.
Our memory for how to do things.
Memory for actions and skills
Example: riding a bike can be in procedural memory. Tying a shoe, typing is also procedural memory.
In contrast to Procedural memory...
Memory for information and facts
For mental information
Can be subdivided into 2 types:
o Semantic Memory:
Involves general information about rules and things that we have over learned.
We can’t remember exactly when or how we acquired that information
o Episodic Memory: (contrast to Semantic Memory)
Memory for specific events or episodes + they are usually unique events rather than
Semantic is memory for things that are very general, you just feel that it’s something that you’ve always
known. For example: If you were asked: “What colour is a $5 bill?”, and you were also asked when did
you learn that? A common response would be that, you’ve always known that fact; you do not
remember when you learned it. You come across it so many times that it becomes overlearned.
In contrast, episodic memory (comes from the word episode) is memory for specific events that only
really happen once, rather than something that has happened over and over again or that has been
overlearned. For example: your first kiss: you may have had many kisses after that, but because it was
your very first kiss, it is a unique event. Other examples: your first class, getting robbed or being in a car
accident. What did you have for dinner last night? This would be an episodic memory.
However, if you were asked, what did you eat for Thanksgiving? It would be a semantic memory
because it is usually the same thing each year (excluding other backgrounds or religions, it is usually
turkey that is eaten each Thanksgiving). Another example: If someone asks, what do you get for
Christmas every year? It would be a semantic memory because gifts are usually given on Christmas day.
However, if someone asks, what gift did you get last Christmas? It would be an episodic memory
because it is specific. BUT, there can be an exception to this: if it’s an aunt that gives you socks EVERY
year as a gift, it would be a semantic memory because it is not a unique event instead it happens every
year, hence it becomes overlearned.
When you recall information without trying.
This is sometimes called incidental memory because you don’t intend to recall something.
Something that you process without having any intention to do so.
Implicit memory comes under procedural memory system because it’s largely unconscious.
When you’re riding a bike again after you haven’t in years, your memory seems to come back
without any effort, it seems to be recalled by itself. A person may start off unstable but after
awhile, they begin pedalling properly.
Information that you deliberately try to remember. There is an intention there because you are
consciously trying to remember. Part of Declarative Memory system.
Inability to recall information from LTM
1. Pseudoforgetting (fake or false forgetting)
a. For example: if you were asked, what colour was that girl’s dress? You can’t say that you
forgot because that information was never intentionally put into your sensory system in
order to be put into LTM. You may say that you forgot what the girl’s dress looked like
BUT really, you never learned what the colour of her dress was in the first place
BECAUSE you did not intentionally pay attention in order to learn it.
2. Information was lost due to decay or displacement
a. Meaning, there wasn’t enough elaboration to keep the information there
3. Information is available but not accessible.
a. It’s available but you cannot access it at that particular time. For example, when you
forget someone’s name at that very moment, but you remember it later. This is referred
to as the Tip-of-the-tongue.
Why is information not accessible?
1. Context-dependent Forgetting or Encoding Specificity Hypothesis
a. The cues used at retrieval do not match the cues used at encoding. In other words, we
are using an inappropriate search strategy.
When you try to remember, you have to use the same specific cues that you used when you
first started encoding that information into the memory system. If the cues match, you will