Intro to the course AMAZING!! MUST HAVE!
Intro Psychology 1010 Section B - Sept. 16
Dr. Rebecca Jubis
psychology=study of human and animal behaviour.
psychological conclusions rely on scientific research not common sayings. Research, common sense
isnt good enough.
War-world II studies. Results
1. soldiers from rural backgrounds were better than from cities
-hands-on, training, city reduced to being handed things, city people are spoiled, country people
interact as a team, rather than being secluded as city people.
2. soldiers with high intelligence were more fearful and stress related disorders than soldiers with low
-more aware, ignorance is bliss, what u dont know wont hurt you, less intelligence less opportunities
they see as a diversion, adventure.
Results are not true. They found the opposite.
It is easy with come up with after the fact explanation... u can explain everything that makes sense. But
is it valid, is it correct. Psychologists dont come with with .. without research
observations and facts → theory (abstract statement) → hypothesis (specific prediction) →
operationalize terms ----> experiment
eg. theory (general and abstract, impossible to research without a more specific hypothesis): frustration
-hypothesis: educated guess, specific prediction
-operationalize your terms: when u conduct a study and start getting specific, it is important an
operational definition or operational return, to find the terms, talk about very specific terms. If
somebody want to replicate my study, I have to be explicit and explain my hypothesis, my terms.
-eg. Depriving the kids of action figures should cause aggression
what do I do? Record every type of aggressive act the children engage. I have operationalized my
terms, I have said how I got frustration, but there are other ways to frustrate people.
What causes aggression? U have to operationalize as well. If a kid punches someone, that is aggression.
It is up to the researcher to decide what actions are considered aggressive.
-now conduct the study. Different ways. Group of kids deprived for an hour with actions that u set as
aggressive. Another group of kids, let them have action to action figures. The natural hypothesis, that
they kids that were deprived will be more aggressive than the kids that were not.
Study, then conclusion. If the hypothesis held true. Does that mean that u have proven your theory to be
Theory frustration causes aggression, u did one study, ur measure of aggression was that.
There are 1000s of different possible ways to frustrate people. Until you test every occurrence of
aggression, you cannot prove your theory true, but you can say, my results confirmed the study, were in
line with the study, support the theory, but they dont prove it. U can never prove it.
If enough studies are conducted, you can reach the point where you can say it is a great theory but you