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Chapter 7-Memory These notes include STM, LTM, sensory-store, short-term store, working memory model, and the serial effect.

Course Code
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

of 2
Psychology Notes
Jan 11, 2011
Chapter 7 – Memory
Behavioral approach
- interested in OVERT behaviour (no interestested in emotions, feelings
- stresses the S-R relationship (stimulus-response) and argues that this relationship
is “stamped in”, and we don’t have to be consciously aware of it.
oThere is a stimulus and response area in the brain. When S encountered, it
becomes activited and if a certain response is reinforced, a physiological
link is formed, and each time it is reinforced, the link gets stronger. This
occurs without awareness or deliberation
oExternal factors ONLY
Cognitive approach
- S-O-R relationship (O for organisms)
- Stimulus → Cognitions: evaluate → predict→interpret→epectations
- When a stimulus is encountered, cognitive approach stresses BOTH internal
(cognitions, thought processes) and exterrnal factors.
Cognitive processes in animals
- insight: the sudden understanding of how to solve a problem (ah hah moment)
- Input→ processes→ output
- S→processing→recall/retrieve
Stimulus→ sensory registers→short term memory→long term memory
1. Sensory Store
- preserves info in its original sensory form for short amount of time. The
sensation of the |S lingers briefly after the s has ended.
- Info from eyes → iconic store
- ear→ echoic sore lasts ¼ of a second.
- Attention required
oSalient: more attention-getting. E.g. things that pertain to oneself
- Recognition
- If not payed attention to, the info will decay. Info fades with the passage of time
2. Short term Memory
- working memory
- info that one is consciously aware of / working on
- can hold info for a short amount of time (15-20s)
- can hold 7plusminus2 items of info at a given time
- works on a “buffer system”: info lost through displacement. Items ‘kicked out’
- theory: decay?
- chunking can be used to cram in more info. Eg TVYMCAFBI, instead of
remembering each letter as separate entity, can be split to chunks:TV-YMCA-FBI
Working Memory Model (Baddeley 2001)
- phonological rehearsal loop
orepeat information e.g. phone number
- visuospatial sketchpad
otemporarily manipulate visual images
- executive control
odetermines where attention will be put. Eg driving
- episodic buffer
oworks to put it all together
Methods to better remember items
- rehearsal
omaintenance. Eg repeating over and over. Maintains info in ST, not as eff
oelaborative rehearsal. Creating associations. Eg visualization,
categorizing, story, mneumonics (eg abc-twinkletwinkle), method of loci
- high vs low imagery words
ohigh: easily visualized eg dog, cat
dual code → meaning and mental image
olow: faith, love, truth
one code → meaning
3. Long Term Memory
- unlimited capacity
- permanent hard to prove
- flashbulb memories: something memorable (eg tragic) happens, and can be rmbed
in vivid detail
osubject to forgetting, distortion, inaccuracies
- age regression through hypnosis: recall memories of childhood
- Electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
Serial position effect: probability of recall greater for things in the beginning (primacy
effect) and end (recency effect) of lists.
- primacy effect → represents info that went to long term memory store
- recency effect → represents info that are currently in short term memery