Chpt 10 nature vs nurture, flynn effect

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Page:
of 3
Feb 11/2011
Test three hints
Chapter 7-10
Did not cover chpt 8 in lecture
Will not be tested on personal application on chapter 8..but yes to other chpt
85 multiple choice
-serial position effect
-hull+ hebb’s views on motivation and arousal
-different views on the structure of intelligence
Nature vs Nurture Controversy
1) Family Studies
-Assesses the influence of heredity on intelligence by examining blood relatives and seeing how
similar they are on IQ scores
-intelligence is influenced by genetics
2) Compare identical and fraternal twins
-fraternal twins are 50%, identical twins are 100% genetically related
-IQ scores of identical twins are more correlated than fraternal
-takes one member of identical twin pair correlates to the other identical twin
-same with pair of fraternal
3) Adoption Studies
-Identity sets limits on IQ and the environment determines where you fall within these limits
-limits are referred to reaction range..20-25 IQ points (reaction range)
Flynn Effect
-performances on intelligence test have steadily been increasing over generations
Chapter 14- psychological disorders
Pinel, 1782
Medical model
-proposes that abnormal behavior should be viewed as a disease and should be treated as one
4 criteria (defining abnormal behavior)
1) Statistical frequency
-how often it happens, if it’s a score that everyone does, then its not abnormal
-normal distribution-> in between high& low, you are normal whereas if someone falls to the
extremes (low and high) then you aren’t
2) Deviation from social norms
-different cultures have different norms, may be considered normal in one culture but weird in
another
-societies standards and views change over the years
-there’s something called DSM-IV (4) (diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders)
-listing ALL known psychological disorders, there are 17 major types or categorizes
-IV- this is the most up to date manual
-this book was revised in 1973, prior to 1973, homosexuality was included in this DSM, after that
division in 1973, it was taken out. There’s nothing that has changed in behavior..but what has
changed? Society’s views. Societies views are reflected of what appears in the DSM or not.
-also, nicotine dependence disorder used to be in the DSM
-to a certain degree, society will have some sort of influence
3) Maladaptive behavior is abnormal
-defined as any kind of behavior that does not promote personal growth
-ex: someone who has a very high-stressed job, they have a couple of drinks..Adaptive or
maladaptive? Some ppl might say maladaptive bc they are running a risk of alcohol dependence.
On the other hand, long stress can eventually take a toll on mental well being...is it not a good
thing to blow off steam once in a while? How do you determine maladaptive
4) Psychological distress
-if your subjective experience is that you’re feeling stress is considered abnormal
-extreme normality, extreme abnormality, most ppl fall in between
Diagnosing
-involves matching people’s symptoms to pre-established categories of psychological disorders
(DSM)
-advantages on diagnosing: help select proper treatment, determine the prognosis (prediction
of the course that the illness is going to take-will they get worse, better, respond to treatment
very well or not.
-disadvantages on diagnosing: self-fulfilling prophecy people play the role or act the way
they thing people with psychological disorder reacts. Other people have certain expectations for
you and you in return act a certain way as well.
-colors one’s perceptions/observations: if you know someone has been diagnosed with
disorders, you will probably perceive them differently, the way you interpret someone could be
different based on your knowledge of someone’s particular situation
-social stigma
-diagnostic interview: therapist asks a wide range of questions: psychological symptoms, family,
social life, history of psychological disorders, family background
Multiaxial Symptom of Diagnosing
1) Record the disorder from the DSM
-what the person’s main problem is
2) Record personality disorders and any possible mental retardation
3) Record any kind of medical disorders, physical problems
4) Record stressful life situation
5) Estimate the person’s level of functioning
-how well are you functioning at work, school, what’s your social life like, do you have a leisure
life?- valuable information that may help prognosis
Rosenhan (1973)
Pseudopatients
-can sane be distinguished from insane
-if you took a normal person who tried to get in a mental institution, they would not be detected even
though they act perfectly normal after they were taken out of the hospital. Picked a bunch of people
who will try to get into a mental institution by faking mental symptoms. They were all admitted to
different mental institutions. they changed their names and occupations. Despite them acting normally,
these Pseudopatients were not detected, they were considered bi-polar or schizophrenic
-concluded that: “it is clear that we cannot distinguish the sane from the insane in psychiatric hospitals,
the hospital itself impose a special environment. People who works in mental institution expect to see
people with mental problems.”
-staff will be informed that out of 195 patients they must find out how many Pseudopatients will be
found? expectation can influence
Neurotic Disorders
-involves feelings of distress but don’t lead to a distortion of reality
-ppl feel anxiety but they aren’t out of touch with reality
-they are not able to function at the utmost of their potential
- Statistical into anxiety disorders, somatic form disorders, dissomatic disorder
1) Anxiety disorders
a) Generalized anxiety disorder. Free-floating anxiety
b) Phobia disorders- simple phobias, social phobias
c) Panic disorder and Agoraphobia
2) Obsessive compulsive disorder
a)

Document Summary

Will not be tested on personal application on chapter 8but yes to other chpt. Assesses the influence of heredity on intelligence by examining blood relatives and seeing how similar they are on iq scores. Intelligence is influenced by genetics: compare identical and fraternal twins. Fraternal twins are 50%, identical twins are 100% genetically related. Iq scores of identical twins are more correlated than fraternal. Takes one member of identical twin pair correlates to the other identical twin. Same with pair of fraternal: adoption studies. Identity sets limits on iq and the environment determines where you fall within these limits. Limits are referred to reaction range20-25 iq points (reaction range) Performances on intelligence test have steadily been increasing over generations. Proposes that abnormal behavior should be viewed as a disease and should be treated as one. 4 criteria (defining abnormal behavior: statistical frequency. How often it happens, if it"s a score that everyone does, then its not abnormal.