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october 8.docx

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PSYC 1010
Heather Jenkin

PSYC 1010 October 8 (MODULE 19) Audition Stimulus for hearing = sound waves Frequency: # of cycles per second – related to the pitch Amplitude: Amount of compression and expansion of molecules, related to “loudness” we perceive (Decibels to measure; 1=10 fold increase… 1 decimal = 10 dB) Anatomy of hearing: Outer Ear Pinna: (part you use for earrings and sunglasses) Sound enters auditory canal Causes tympanic membrane (eardrum) to vibrate Middle Ear Vibration causes malleus, incus, stapes (3 tiny bones) to vibrate Amplify sound more than 30x Causes oval window to move in an out (Conduction hearing loss: When the middle ear isn’t conducting sound well to the cochlea) Inner Ear Contains cochlea Houses basilar membrane – which moves as oval window moves On top of membrane is Organ Of Corti Contains hair cells = sound receptors Hair cells synapse with auditory nerve Send impulses to auditory relay station thalamus – then to auditory cortex (temporal lobe) (Sensorineural Hearing Loss: when the receptor cells aren’t sending messages through the auditory nerves) Preventing Hearing Loss: Exposure to sounds that are too loud to talk over can cause damage to the inner ear, especially hair cells Structures of the middle and inner ear can also be damaged by disease Prevention methods include limiting exposure to noises over 85 dB Treating Hearing Loss: People with conduction hearing loss may be helped with hearing aids. These aids amplify sounds striking the eardrum Sound Perception: Loudness Loudness refers to more intense sound vibrations; this causes a greater number of hair cells to send signals to the brain Soft sounds only activate certain hair cells; louder sounds Pitch SHORT wavelength = HIGHER freque
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