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Methods of Research Lecture Notes Clear and concise notes taken during lecture. (Received an A)

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York University
PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Methods of Research Survey Method  Consists of a set of written questions that are used to determine people’s beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours Advantages  Very efficient  Anonymous so responses are truthful (?) Disadvantages  Sometimes questionnaires are too long and people quickly make up responses  Misinterpretation of questions  Large sample required o Must be representative of the population Random sampling: Every person in the population has the same probability to be randomly picked as part of the sample. Often pilot studies are conducted to ensure enough responses are sent. Naturalistic Observation  Act of recording peoples’ behaviour naturally in a natural setting. Advantages  See above Disadvantages  Lack of control  Not very efficient  Bias in observer (tendency to want to “prove” hypothesis)  Cannot infer cause and effect o You are only observing, it would be fallacious to say one thing leads to another because you don’t know the entire picture Researchers must aim to minimize subject reactivity so that they continue acting naturally. Participant observer: The researcher adopts a cover and blends in with the subject(s) Unobtrusive measures: Methods of attaining information without the subject’s knowledge Inter-observer reliability: No variation in observer interpretation, indication of good data Experimental Method  The act of changing conditions to elicit a response.  Must have at least one: o Independent variable  The condition that is changed to see if it has an effect on behaviour o Dependent variable  The behaviour that is measured to see if there is a change after manipulating the independent variable  Control Group: Used as a basis for comparison. No change in independent variable over the experimental period. Control and experimental group must be equal in every other way.  Plac
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