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Psychoanalytical Approach Lecture Notes Clear and concise notes taken during lecture. (Received an A)

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Psychoanalytic Approach (Freud)  Believes in the subconscious in influencing behaviour  Many concepts are not testable  Many sexual themes in his theories because at the time his subjects were sexually repressed Instincts (Refers to mental energy)  Born with them, nothing you can do but try to keep them in control Life  Instincts needed to survive Death  Instincts to be aggressive towards other people or ourselves Id  Structure that contains the instincts  Only structure present at birth  Seeks self-indulgence  Strives for immediate gratification  Based on pleasure principle  Does not know social convention  Primary process thinking: Using your imagination/fantasizing in order to dissolve the tension Ego  Develops 13-15 months  Helps the Id obtain satisfaction in a socially acceptable manner  In touch with reality, it is reasonable and evaluates the environment  Strives for delayed gratification  Middle-man between Id and Super Ego  Secondary process thinking: Based on the reality principle Super Ego  Can be considered complete opposite of Id  Based on the Moral principle  Contains the ideals and values  Contains the conscience  Seeks perfection, blocks all gratification and moral goals take precedence over realistic goals Conscious Refers to what you are actively thinking Preconscious Right under the conscious (easily accessible but you need to think about it) Unconscious Not readily available Stages of Psychosexual Development  Freud belived people must go through these stages in order  If an individual does not move forward in a stage, it is referred to fixation o May be due to all needs are met o Or waiting for needs to be met  If one is frustrated in the genital stage regression to an earlier stage might occur where needs were met Erogenous zone  Zones that need pleasure producing stimulation to reduce tension (Sexual) o Sexual used in a general way to refer to urges for different types of physical pleasure Oral stage Between 13-15 months  Erogenous zone is the mouth, babies derive pleasure from sucking Anal stage Starts around 18 months  Erogenous zone is the anus, deriving pleasure from retention or expelling of feces Phallic stage Occurs at about 4 years  Freud believes this is the most crucial in personality development Males: Oedipal complex  Boy is sexually attracted to mother, feels hostile towards father—emotional conflict 
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