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Motivation Lecture Notes Clear and concise notes taken during lecture. (Received an A)

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Motivation Hull’s Drive Reduction Theory  Proposes that biological needs or deficiencies increase our drive or arousal level. All of our behaviour is geared towards satisfying these needs and reducing drive [arousal] down to a zero level o Whenever there is a deficiency in a biological need, your drive increases to satisfy this need, and decreases as you obtain this need o Ideally you want no drive  Probability of acting is the product of habit strength and drive level o Habit strength refers to how habitual an action is Problems  Not all needs are biological in nature  When your needs are met but you still have drive (you’re full…but you still want dessert)  When your needs are not met but you don’t have any drive (you’re hungry…but you REALLY dislike what mom made)  Missing Incentive: anticipated reward learned through past experience o After Hall’s theory, many incentive-based theories came out o Drive theories look at how internal states push you whereas incentive theories look at how external stimuli pull you Hebb’s Optimal Level of Arousal Theory  When arousal is too high or too low we try to obtain an optimal level o Contrast to Hall: we don’t want 0 arousal—just a good “medium”  Arousal increases/decreases with drugs and other stimuli  Diurnal variations: time of day influencing your level of arousal  Extroverts have a naturally low level of arousal and introverts have a naturally high level of arousal  Performance is best at the optimal level of arousal, but worst at both low and high levels of arousal Motivation in Participating in Risky Activities Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Theory  Believed that there is a strong biological predis
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