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Intelligence Lecture Notes Clear and concise notes taken during lecture. (Received an A)

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PSYC 1010
Rebecca Jubis

Intelligence  A standardized measure of a sample of one’s behaviour  What is intelligence? Hard to actually quantify Personality Tests  Measure personality traits Mental Ability Tests  Intelligence test: Used to assess intellectual potential  Aptitude test: Used to measure potential but they assess a specific type of mental ability  Achievement test: Measure how well you do on things you have learned (essentially high school/university tests) Wechsler (big dude in intelligence)  Suggests that in intelligence is the capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment o Again, practically impossible to define intelligence History of IQ Tests  Galton believed that IQ is reflected by sensory acuity and physical attributes o If you are able to sense more….you are smarter o If you have a bigger head…you are smarter o Lots of criticism  Binet focused on mental abilities such as memorization o Noticed the older children were, the better they would do on standardized tests o Made a distinction between chronological age and mental age  Mental age refers to a child’s performance on a test expressed in years compared to typical performance at that age  Sturn went a step further and defined Intelligence Quotient as the mental age divided by the chronological age o If the two are equal then you are average (100) o Seemed to make sense until the outcome didn’t seem to make sense  As you grow older, do you necessarily grow smarter?  Wechsler solved the above issues and made a new formula Wechsler’s Deviation IQ Score  Translated raw scores into deviation scores  Average performance for a given age group is set at 100 then you see how far a person’s score deviates from this value  Deviation score allows you to see exactly where this person fits in the normal distribution (above/below average)  You are only compared to people in your age group  Separated into verbal and performance scales which could be combined for a total score Cognitive Perspective  Focuses on the process of intelligence rather than on the amount (or measure) of intelligence Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory  Acknowledges the cultural differences in what intelligence is  Believes there are different types of intelligence  Analytical intelligence refers to what you need to do well in school  Creative intelligence refers to the ability to create new ideas  Practical intelligence refers to the ability to effectively solve every day problems (street smarts) Gardiner  Further splits it up into 8 different types Emotional Intelligence  Popularized by Goleman since 1990  Consists of the ability to perceive and express emotion to incorporate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion  Same as Gardiner’s inter/intra-personal intelligence Test Construction  What criteria must be met to make a good test? Standardization  A uniform procedure whereby the original test is administered to a large group in order to produce questions that can discriminate among people  Must produce good questions that will show variability  Must produce a standard by which to judge what an individual score means Reliability  A consistency must be shown between test scores  Test-Retest o Pretty self-explanatory o Test-Retest with alternate forms  Change some aspects
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